OSA's Digital Library

Biomedical Optics Express

Biomedical Optics Express

  • Editor: Joseph A. Izatt
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 1 — Aug. 2, 2010
  • pp: 41–46

Pseudo-random single photon counting: a high-speed implementation

Qiang Zhang, Ling Chen, and Nanguang Chen  »View Author Affiliations

Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. 41-46 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (5958 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Pseudo-random single photon counting (PRSPC) is a new time-resolved optical measurement method which combines the spread spectrum time-resolved method with single photon counting. A pseudo-random bit sequence is used to modulate a continuous wave laser diode, while single photon counting is used to build up the optical signal in response to the modulated excitation. Periodic cross-correlation is performed to obtain the temporal profile of the subject of interest. Compared with conventional time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC), PRSPC enjoys many advantages such as low cost and high count rate without compromising the sensitivity and time-resolution. In this paper, we report a PRSPC system that can be used for high-speed acquisition of the temporal point spread function of diffuse photons. It can reach a photon count rate as high as 3 Mcps (counts per second). Phantom experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the system performance.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
(170.3890) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics instrumentation
(170.6920) Medical optics and biotechnology : Time-resolved imaging
(300.6500) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, time-resolved

ToC Category:
Spectroscopic Diagnostics

Original Manuscript: June 1, 2010
Revised Manuscript: June 22, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: July 6, 2010
Published: July 13, 2010

Qiang Zhang, Ling Chen, and Nanguang Chen, "Pseudo-random single photon counting: a high-speed implementation," Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 41-46 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfield, A. P. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. C. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, “Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: a systematic review,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108(1), 9–22 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. C. Enfield, A. P. Gibson, N. L. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, C. Richardson, M. Keshtgar, M. Douek, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional time-resolved optical mammography of the uncompressed breast,” Appl. Opt. 46(17), 3628–3638 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Cerussi, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, “In vivo absorption, scattering, and physiologic properties of 58 malignant breast tumors determined by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044005 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. C. Hebden and T. Austin, “Optical tomography of the neonatal brain,” Eur. Radiol. 17(11), 2926–2933 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. A. Franceschini, D. K. Joseph, T. J. Huppert, S. G. Diamond, and D. A. Boas, “Diffuse optical imaging of the whole head,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054007 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. M. Yusof, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the neonatal brain,” Neuroimage 31(4), 1426–1433 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Xu, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, K. D. Paulsen, and J. F. Dunn, “Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 102–110 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Schweiger, A. Gibson, and S. R. Arridge, “Computational aspectcts of diffuse optical tomography,” Comput. Opt. 5, 33–41 (2001).
  9. F. Gao, H. J. Zhao, and Y. Yamada, “Improvement of image quality in diffuse optical tomography by use of full time-resolved data,” Appl. Opt. 41(4), 778–791 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. Becker, A. Bergmann, A. Gibson, N. Everdell, D. Jennions, M. Schweiger, A. R. Arridge, and J. C. Hebden, “Multi-dimensional time-correlated single photon counting applied to diffuse optical tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5693, 34–42 (2005).
  11. F. Schmidt, M. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(1), 256–265 (2000). [CrossRef]
  12. H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and M. Tamura, “Multi-channel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(9), 3595–3602 (1999). [CrossRef]
  13. H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, K. Homma, and Y. Yamada, “Time-resolved diffuse optical tomographic imaging for the provision of both anatomical and functional information about biological tissue,” Appl. Opt. 44(10), 1905–1916 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Becker & Hickl GmbH, The bh TCSPC Handbook, http://www.becker-hickl.com/literature.htm
  15. Q. Zhang, H. W. Soon, H. Tian, S. Fernando, Y. Ha, and N. G. Chen, “Pseudo-random single photon counting for time-resolved optical measurement,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13233–13239 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. V. Bykov, A. K. Indukaev, A. V. Priezzhev, and R. Myllylä, “Study of the influence of glucose on diffuse reflection of ultrashort laser pulses from a medium simulating a biological tissue,” Quantum Electron. 38(5), 491–496 (2008). [CrossRef]
  17. S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15(2), R41–R93 (1999). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited