OSA's Digital Library

Biomedical Optics Express

Biomedical Optics Express

  • Editor: Joseph A. Izatt
  • Vol. 2, Iss. 8 — Aug. 1, 2011
  • pp: 2110–2116

Chemoselective imaging of mouse brain tissue via multiplex CARS microscopy

Christoph Pohling, Tiago Buckup, Axel Pagenstecher, and Marcus Motzkus  »View Author Affiliations

Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 2, Issue 8, pp. 2110-2116 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1094 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The fast and reliable characterization of pathological tissue is a debated topic in the application of vibrational spectroscopy in medicine. In the present work we apply multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (MCARS) to the investigation of fresh mouse brain tissue. The combination of imaginary part extraction followed by principal component analysis led to color contrast between grey and white matter as well as layers of granule and Purkinje cells. Additional quantitative information was obtained by using a decomposition algorithm. The results perfectly agree with HE stained references slides prepared separately making multiplex CARS an ideal approach for chemoselective imaging.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(170.0170) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics and biotechnology
(180.0180) Microscopy : Microscopy
(300.6230) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: May 11, 2011
Revised Manuscript: June 27, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: June 27, 2011
Published: June 30, 2011

Christoph Pohling, Tiago Buckup, Axel Pagenstecher, and Marcus Motzkus, "Chemoselective imaging of mouse brain tissue via multiplex CARS microscopy," Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2110-2116 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. A. Volkmer, J. X. Cheng, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “New advances in Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and spectroscopy of biological systems,” Biophys. J. 80, 164a (2001).
  3. M. Harz, P. Rösch, and J. Popp, “Vibrational spectroscopy--a powerful tool for the rapid identification of microbial cells at the single-cell level,” Cytometry A 75A(2), 104–113 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. W. Wang, T. T. Le, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of arterial cells and extracellular matrix using a multimodal CARS microscope,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1813–1822 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Okuno, H. Kano, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and H. O. Hamaguchi, “Ultrabroadband multiplex CARS microspectroscopy and imaging using a subnanosecond supercontinuum light source in the deep near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 923–925 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Dogariu, A. Goltsov, and M. O. Scully, “Real-time monitoring of blood using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054004 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. A. Rinia, M. Bonn, E. M. Vartiainen, C. B. Schaffer, and M. Müller, “Spectroscopic analysis of the oxygenation state of hemoglobin using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 050502 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. L. Evans, X. Y. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, S. T. C. Wong, and G. S. Young, “Chemically-selective imaging of brain structures with CARS microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12076–12087 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Krafft, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Raman and CARS microspectroscopy of cells and tissues,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1046–1057 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Krafft, L. Shapoval, S. B. Sobottka, K. D. Geiger, G. Schackert, and R. Salzer, “Identification of primary tumors of brain metastases by SIMCA classification of IR spectroscopic images,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758(7), 883–891 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. Krafft, G. Steiner, C. Beleites, and R. Salzer, “Disease recognition by infrared and Raman spectroscopy,” J Biophotonics 2(1-2), 13–28 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Bird, M. Miljković, N. Laver, and M. Diem, “Spectral detection of micro-metastases and individual metastatic cells in lymph node histology,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10(2), 135–144 (2011). [PubMed]
  14. E. M. Vartiainen, “Phase Retrieval Approach for Coherent Anti-Stokes-Raman Scattering Spectrum Analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(8), 1209–1214 (1992). [CrossRef]
  15. H. A. Rinia, M. Bonn, M. Müller, and E. M. Vartiainen, “Quantitative CARS spectroscopy using the maximum entropy method: the main lipid phase transition,” ChemPhysChem 8(2), 279–287 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. X. Liu, Y. J. Lee, and M. T. Cicerone, “Fast extraction of resonant vibrational response from CARS spectra with arbitrary nonresonant background,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(7), 726–731 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. C. Krafft, A. A. Ramoji, C. Bielecki, N. Vogler, T. Meyer, D. Akimov, P. Rösch, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, I. Petersen, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “A comparative Raman and CARS imaging study of colon tissue,” J Biophotonics 2(5), 303–312 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Meyer, N. Bergner, C. Bielecki, C. Krafft, D. Akimov, B. F. M. Romeike, R. Reichart, R. Kalff, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Nonlinear microscopy, infrared, and Raman microspectroscopy for brain tumor analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021113 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. von Vacano, L. Meyer, and M. Motzkus, “Rapid polymer blend imaging with quantitative broadband multiplex CARS microscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(7), 916–926 (2007). [CrossRef]
  20. C. Pohling, T. Buckup, and M. Motzkus, “Hyperspectral data processing for chemoselective multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy of unknown samples,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021105 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. W. Kee and M. T. Cicerone, “Simple approach to one-laser, broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2701–2703 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. H. Kano and H. Hamaguchi, “Dispersion-compensated supercontinuum generation for ultrabroadband multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 37(1-3), 411–415 (2006). [CrossRef]
  23. E. M. Vartiainen, H. A. Rinia, M. Müller, and M. Bonn, “Direct extraction of Raman line-shapes from congested CARS spectra,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3622–3630 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. Viviani, G. Grön, and M. Spitzer, “Functional principal component analysis of fMRI data,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 24(2), 109–129 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. Mizuno, T. Hayashi, K. Tashibu, S. Maraishi, K. Kawauchi, and Y. Ozaki, “Near-infrared FT-Raman spectra of the rat brain tissues,” Neurosci. Lett. 141(1), 47–52 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. K. V. Branden and M. Hubert, “Robust classification in high dimensions based on the SIMCA method,” Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 79(1-2), 10–21 (2005). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited