OSA's Digital Library

Biomedical Optics Express

Biomedical Optics Express

  • Editor: Joseph A. Izatt
  • Vol. 3, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 2012
  • pp: 64–74

Independent component analysis of broadband near-infrared spectroscopy data acquired on adult human head

Irina Schelkanova and Vladislav Toronov  »View Author Affiliations

Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp. 64-74 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (962 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The goal of this study was to investigate the ability of independent component analysis in the time-spectral domain to isolate physiological sources of functional near infrared spectroscopy signals. We apply independent component analysis to the broadband fNIRS data acquired on the human forehead at 650 different wavelengths between 700 nm and 950 nm. To induce cerebral oxygenation changes we use the breath holding paradigm. We found one major independent component during baseline and two major components during exercise. Each independent component corresponds to one oxy-hemoglobin and one deoxy-hemoglobin time courses. The corresponding characteristic spectra of changes in optical absorption suggested that one component represented vasodilation of cerebral arterioles while the delayed component represented the washout of deoxyhemoglobin either in cerebral capillaries and venules or in extra cerebral tissue. We found that both broadband and isolated wavelength data can produce similar independent components.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(170.0170) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics and biotechnology
(170.2655) Medical optics and biotechnology : Functional monitoring and imaging

ToC Category:
Spectroscopic Diagnostics

Original Manuscript: September 29, 2011
Revised Manuscript: December 1, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: December 2, 2011
Published: December 9, 2011

Irina Schelkanova and Vladislav Toronov, "Independent component analysis of broadband near-infrared spectroscopy data acquired on adult human head," Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 64-74 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W. F. Cheong, and D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.20(3), 469–477 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Irani, S. M. Platek, S. Bunce, A. C. Ruocco, and D. Chute, “Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS): an emerging neuroimaging technology with important applications for the study of brain disorders,” Clin. Neuropsychol.21(1), 9–37 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. Schelkanova and V. Toronov, “Optimal quantitation of the cerebral hemodynamic response in functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express18(18), 19386–19395 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Dehghani, F. Leblond, B. W. Pogue, and F. Chauchard, “Application of spectral derivative data in visible and near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(12), 3381–3399 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Virtanen, T. Noponen, and P. Meriläinen, “Comparison of principal and independent component analysis in removing extracerebral interference from near-infrared spectroscopy signals,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054032 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Hyvarinen, J. Karhunen, and E. Oja, Independent Component Analysis (Wiley, New York, 2001).
  7. S. Kohno, I. Miyai, A. Seiyama, I. Oda, A. Ishikawa, S. Tsuneishi, T. Amita, and K. Shimizu, “Removal of the skin blood flow artifact in functional near-infrared spectroscopic imaging data through independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 062111 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. C. Robertson, T. S. Douglas, and E. M. Meintjes, “Motion artifact removal for functional near infrared spectroscopy: a comparison of methods,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.57(6), 1377–1387 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. V. Medvedev, J. M. Kainerstorfer, S. V. Borisov, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and J. Vanmeter, ““Seeing” electroencephalogram through the skull: imaging prefrontal cortex with fast optical signal,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(6), 061702 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Zhang, Y. J. Zhang, C. M. Lu, S. Y. Ma, Y. F. Zang, and C. Z. Zhu, “Functional connectivity as revealed by independent component analysis of resting-state fNIRS measurements,” Neuroimage51(3), 1150–1161 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Hesse and C. James, “The fastica algorithm with spatial constraints,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett.12(11), 792–795 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. T. Len, J. Neary, G. Asmundson, D. Goodman, B. Bjornson, and Y. Bhambhani, “Cerebrovascular reactivity impairment after sport-induced concussion,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.43(12), 2241–2248 (2011). [CrossRef]
  13. R. L. Grubb, M. E. Raichle, J. O. Eichling, and M. M. Ter-Pogossian, “The effects of changes in PaCO2 on cerebral blood volume, blood flow, and vascular mean transit time,” Stroke5(5), 630–639 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. U. E. Emir, C. Ozturk, and A. Akin, “Multimodal investigation of fMRI and fNIRS derived breath hold BOLD signals with an expanded balloon model,” Physiol. Meas.29(1), 49–63 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Sassaroli and S. Fantini, “Comment on the modified Beer-Lambert law for scattering media,” Phys. Med. Biol.49(14), N255–N257 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. B. Gratzer, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Holly Hill, London, personal communication.
  17. N. Kollias, Wellman Laboratories, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, personal communication.
  18. H. Q. Woodard and D. R. White, “The composition of body tissues,” Br. J. Radiol.59(708), 1209–1218 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(1), 221–229 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. B. J. MacIntosh, L. M. Klassen, and R. S. Menon, “Transient hemodynamics during a breath hold challenge in a two part functional imaging study with simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy in adult humans,” Neuroimage20(2), 1246–1252 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. B. A. Poser, E. van Mierlo, and D. G. Norris, “Exploring the post-stimulus undershoot with spin-echo fMRI: implications for models of neurovascular response,” Hum. Brain Mapp.32(1), 141–153 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited