OSA's Digital Library

Biomedical Optics Express

Biomedical Optics Express

  • Editor: Joseph A. Izatt
  • Vol. 3, Iss. 10 — Oct. 1, 2012
  • pp: 2647–2657

Extended coherence length megahertz FDML and its application for anterior segment imaging

Wolfgang Wieser, Thomas Klein, Desmond C. Adler, Francois Trépanier, Christoph M. Eigenwillig, Sebastian Karpf, Joseph M. Schmitt, and Robert Huber  »View Author Affiliations


Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 3, Issue 10, pp. 2647-2657 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.3.002647


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2656 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We present a 1300 nm Fourier domain mode locked (FDML) laser for optical coherence tomography (OCT) that combines both, a high 1.6 MHz wavelength sweep rate and an ultra-long instantaneous coherence length for rapid volumetric deep field imaging. By reducing the dispersion in the fiber delay line of the FDML laser, the instantaneous coherence length and hence the available imaging range is approximately quadrupled compared to previously published MHz-FDML setups, the imaging speed is increased by a factor of 16 compared to previous extended coherence length results. We present a detailed characterization of the FDML laser performance. We demonstrate for the first time MHz-OCT imaging of the anterior segment of the human eye. The OCT system provides enough imaging depth to cover the whole range from the top surface of the cornea down to the crystalline lens.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(110.4500) Imaging systems : Optical coherence tomography
(140.3600) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, tunable
(170.4500) Medical optics and biotechnology : Optical coherence tomography

ToC Category:
Optical Coherence Tomography

History
Original Manuscript: July 13, 2012
Revised Manuscript: September 14, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: September 15, 2012
Published: September 24, 2012

Citation
Wolfgang Wieser, Thomas Klein, Desmond C. Adler, Francois Trépanier, Christoph M. Eigenwillig, Sebastian Karpf, Joseph M. Schmitt, and Robert Huber, "Extended coherence length megahertz FDML and its application for anterior segment imaging," Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2647-2657 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/boe/abstract.cfm?URI=boe-3-10-2647


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995). [CrossRef]
  3. G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, “‘Coherence radar’ and ‘spectral radar’—new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.3(1), 21–31 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(18), 2183–2189 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(21), 2067–2069 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express11(22), 2953–2963 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking (FDML): a new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express14(8), 3225–3237 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett.31(20), 2975–2977 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics1(12), 709–716 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett.32(14), 2049–2051 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express16(19), 15149–15169 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, H. Li, P. Heim, G. Cole, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, “OCT imaging up to 760kHz axial scan rate using single-mode 1310nm MEMs-tunable VCSELs with >100nm tuning range,” in CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB2.
  16. V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, B. Potsaid, G. Cole, J. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, “Design and performance of broadly tunable, narrow line-width, high repetition rate 1310nm VCSELs for swept source optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE8276, 82760D, 82760D-11 (2012). [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments,” Opt. Express13(26), 10652–10664 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express13(9), 3513–3528 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, and R. Huber, “Wavelength swept amplified spontaneous emission source,” Opt. Express17(21), 18794–18807 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Wavelength swept amplified spontaneous emission source for high speed retinal optical coherence tomography at 1060 nm,” J Biophotonics4(7-8), 552–558 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Recent developments in Fourier domain mode locked lasers for optical coherence tomography: imaging at 1310 nm vs. 1550 nm wavelength,” J Biophotonics2(6-7), 357–363 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. B. Golubovic, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical frequency-domain reflectometry using rapid wavelength tuning of a Cr4+:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett.22(22), 1704–1706 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking,” Opt. Lett.34(6), 725–727 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: high quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express18(14), 14685–14704 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express19(4), 3044–3062 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. Zhang, G. J. Liu, and Z. P. Chen, “Ultra broad band Fourier domain mode locked swept source based on dual SOAs and WDM couplers,” Proc. SPIE7554, 75541I, 75541I-5 (2010). [CrossRef]
  27. Y. X. Mao, C. Flueraru, S. D. Chang, and S. Sherif, “High-power 1300 nm FDML swept laser using polygon-based narrowband optical scanning filter,” Proc. SPIE7168, 716822, 716822-8 (2009). [CrossRef]
  28. S. Marschall, T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, K. Hsu, K. P. Hansen, B. Sumpf, K.-H. Hasler, G. Erbert, O. B. Jensen, C. Pedersen, R. Huber, and P. E. Andersen, “Fourier domain mode-locked swept source at 1050 nm based on a tapered amplifier,” Opt. Express18(15), 15820–15831 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. D. C. Adler, W. Wieser, F. Trepanier, J. M. Schmitt, and R. A. Huber, “Extended coherence length Fourier domain mode locked lasers at 1310 nm,” Opt. Express19(21), 20930–20939 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. E. Osiac, A. Săftoiu, D. I. Gheonea, I. Mandrila, and R. Angelescu, “Optical coherence tomography and Doppler optical coherence tomography in the gastrointestinal tract,” World J. Gastroenterol.17(1), 15–20 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.112(12), 1584–1589 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. M. Hagen-Eggert, P. Koch, and G. Huttmann, “Analysis of the signal fall-off in spectral domain optical coherence tomography systems,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82131K, 82131K-7 (2012). [CrossRef]
  33. B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz-1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82130M (2012). [CrossRef]
  34. B. Považay, B. Hofer, C. Torti, B. Hermann, A. R. Tumlinson, M. Esmaeelpour, C. A. Egan, A. C. Bird, and W. Drexler, “Impact of enhanced resolution, speed and penetration on three-dimensional retinal optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express17(5), 4134–4150 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. L. An, G. Guan, and R. K. Wang, “High-speed 1310 nm-band spectral domain optical coherence tomography at 184,000 lines per second,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 060506 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, and R. Wang, “High speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging at 500,000 A‑lines per second,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(10), 2770–2783 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1539–1552 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. W.-Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(17), 2919–2921 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. T. Bonin, G. Franke, M. Hagen-Eggert, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “In vivo Fourier-domain full-field OCT of the human retina with 1.5 million A-lines/s,” Opt. Lett.35(20), 3432–3434 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. D. Choi, H. Hiro-Oka, H. Furukawa, R. Yoshimura, M. Nakanishi, K. Shimizu, and K. Ohbayashi, “Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using optical demultiplexers imaging at 60,000,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett.33(12), 1318–1320 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. R. Wang, J. X. Yun, R. Goodwin, R. Markwald, T. K. Borg, R. B. Runyan, and B. Gao, “4D imaging of embryonic chick hearts by streak-mode Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE8207, 82073V, 82073V-6 (2012). [CrossRef]
  42. R. Wang, J. X. Yun, X. Yuan, R. Goodwin, R. R. Markwald, and B. Z. Gao, “Megahertz streak-mode Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 066016 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express17(12), 9947–9961 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Ultra-rapid dispersion measurement in optical fibers,” Opt. Express17(25), 22871–22878 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2556–2558 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, G. Palte, and R. Huber, “K-space linear Fourier domain mode locked laser and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(12), 8916–8937 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. B. D. Goldberg, B. J. Vakoc, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Performance of reduced bit-depth acquisition for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express17(19), 16957–16968 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. T. Klein, W. Wieser, R. Andre, T. Pfeiffer, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz FDML OCT: snapshot retinal imaging at 6.7 million axial-scans per second,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82131E, 82131E-6 (2012). [CrossRef]
  49. S. Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, X. G. Troncoso, and D. H. Hubel, “Microsaccades: a neurophysiological analysis,” Trends Neurosci.32(9), 463–475 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express17(17), 14880–14894 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Multimedia

Multimedia FilesRecommended Software
» Media 1: AVI (2062 KB)      QuickTime

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited