OSA's Digital Library

Biomedical Optics Express

Biomedical Optics Express

  • Editor: Joseph A. Izatt
  • Vol. 3, Iss. 3 — Mar. 1, 2012
  • pp: 633–649

Complex conjugate resolved heterodyne swept source optical coherence tomography using coherence revival

Al-Hafeez Dhalla, Derek Nankivil, and Joseph A. Izatt  »View Author Affiliations


Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 633-649 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.3.000633


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (3237 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We describe a simple and low-cost technique for resolving the complex conjugate ambiguity in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) that is applicable to many swept source OCT (SSOCT) systems. First, we review the principles of coherence revival, wherein an interferometer illuminated by an external cavity tunable laser (ECTL) exhibits interference fringes when the two arms of the interferometer are mismatched by an integer multiple of the laser cavity length. Second, we report observations that the spectral interferogram obtained from SSOCT systems employing certain ECTLs are automatically phase modulated when the arm lengths are mismatched this way. This phase modulation results in a frequency-shifted interferogram, effectively creating an extended-depth heterodyne SSOCT system without the use of acousto-optic or electro-optic modulators. We suggest that this phase modulation may be caused by the ECTL cavity optical pathlength varying slightly over the laser sweep, and support this hypothesis with numerical simulations. We also report on the successful implementation of this technique with two commercial swept source lasers operating at 840nm and 1040nm, with sweep rates of 8kHz and 100kHz respectively. The extended imaging depth afforded by this technique was demonstrated by measuring the sensitivity fall-off profiles of each laser with matched and mismatched interferometer arms. The feasibility of this technique for clinical systems is demonstrated by imaging the ocular anterior segments of healthy human volunteers.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(170.4500) Medical optics and biotechnology : Optical coherence tomography

ToC Category:
Optical Coherence Tomography

History
Original Manuscript: December 23, 2011
Revised Manuscript: February 23, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: February 23, 2012
Published: February 24, 2012

Citation
Al-Hafeez Dhalla, Derek Nankivil, and Joseph A. Izatt, "Complex conjugate resolved heterodyne swept source optical coherence tomography using coherence revival," Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 633-649 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/boe/abstract.cfm?URI=boe-3-3-633


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol.113(3), 325–332 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart82(2), 128–133 (1999). [PubMed]
  4. M. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(18), 2183–2189 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express19(4), 3044–3062 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, “Full range complex spectral optical coherence tomography technique in eye imaging,” Opt. Lett.27(16), 1415–1417 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, R. Leitgeb, and C. Hitzenberger, “High speed full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express13(2), 583–594 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, and B. Bouma, “Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting,” Opt. Express12(20), 4822–4828 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, “Heterodyne swept-source optical coherence tomography for complete complex conjugate ambiguity removal,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(6), 064005–064006 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Zhang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “Removal of a mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using an electro-optic phase modulator,” Opt. Lett.30(2), 147–149 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Bachmann, R. Leitgeb, and T. Lasser, “Heterodyne Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for full range probing with high axial resolution,” Opt. Express14(4), 1487–1496 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. V. Sarunic, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time quadrature projection complex conjugate resolved Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.31(16), 2426–2428 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Elimination of depth degeneracy in optical frequency-domain imaging through polarization-based optical demodulation,” Opt. Lett.31(3), 362–364 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. B. Vakhtin, K. A. Peterson, and D. J. Kane, “Resolving the complex conjugate ambiguity in Fourier-domain OCT by harmonic lock-in detection of the spectral interferogram,” Opt. Lett.31(9), 1271–1273 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, G. Aoki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Simultaneous B-M-mode scanning method for real-time full-range Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt.45(8), 1861–1865 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. An and R. K. Wang, “Use of a scanner to modulate spatial interferograms for in vivo full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.32(23), 3423–3425 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. A. Leitgeb, R. Michaely, T. Lasser, and S. C. Sekhar, “Complex ambiguity-free Fourier domain optical coherence tomography through transverse scanning,” Opt. Lett.32(23), 3453–3455 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. K. Wang, “In vivo full range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(5), 054103 (2007). [CrossRef]
  19. Y. K. Tao, M. Zhao, and J. A. Izatt, “High-speed complex conjugate resolved retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography using sinusoidal phase modulation,” Opt. Lett.32(20), 2918–2920 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. Wang, Y. Pan, and A. M. Rollins, “Extending the effective imaging range of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using a fiber optic switch,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2632–2634 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. B. Hofer, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, and W. Drexler, “Dispersion encoded full range frequency domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express17(1), 7–24 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S.-Y. Baek, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “High-resolution mode-spacing measurement of the blue-violet diode laser using interference of fields created with time delays greater than the coherence time,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(12), 7720–7723 (2007). [CrossRef]
  23. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA., 1986).
  24. H. X. Jiang and J. Y. Lin, ““Mode spacing ``anomaly” in InGaN blue lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(8), 1066–1068 (1999). [CrossRef]
  25. A.-H. Dhalla and J. A. Izatt, “Complete complex conjugate resolved heterodyne swept-source optical coherence tomography using a dispersive optical delay line,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(5), 1218–1232 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A.-H. Dhalla and J. A. Izatt, “Complete complex conjugate resolved heterodyne swept source optical coherence tomography using a dispersive optical delay line: erratum,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(3), 630–632 (2012). [CrossRef]
  27. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 2007).
  28. M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. R. Hee, “Optical coherence tomography: theory,” in Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, B. Bouma and G. Tearney, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York 2002).
  30. S. Diddams and J.-C. Diels, “Dispersion measurements with white-light interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B13(6), 1120–1129 (1996). [CrossRef]
  31. A.-H. Dhalla, T. Bustamante, D. Nanikivil, H. Hendargo, R. McNabb, A. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Dual-depth SSOCT for simultaneous complex resolved anterior segment and conventional retinal imaging,” Proc. SPIE8213, 82131G, 82131G-4 (2012). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited