OSA's Digital Library

Biomedical Optics Express

Biomedical Optics Express

  • Editor: Joseph A. Izatt
  • Vol. 4, Iss. 10 — Oct. 1, 2013
  • pp: 2196–2206

Achromatic miniature lens system for coherent Raman scattering microscopy

Richa Mittal, Mihaela Balu, Petra Wilder-Smith, and Eric O. Potma  »View Author Affiliations

Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 4, Issue 10, pp. 2196-2206 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2981 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We discuss the design and performance of a miniature objective lens optimized for coherent Raman scattering microscopy. The packaged lens assembly has a numerical aperture of 0.51 in water and an outer diameter of 8 mm. The lens system exhibits minimum chromatic aberrations, and produces coherent Raman scattering images with sub-micrometer lateral resolution (0.648 μm) using near-infrared excitation pulses. We demonstrate that despite the small dimensions of the miniature objective, the performance of this lens system is comparable to standard microscope objective lenses, offering opportunities for miniaturizing coherent Raman scattering imaging probes without sacrificing the image quality.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(220.3630) Optical design and fabrication : Lenses
(350.3950) Other areas of optics : Micro-optics
(180.4315) Microscopy : Nonlinear microscopy

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: June 17, 2013
Revised Manuscript: August 3, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: August 23, 2013
Published: September 19, 2013

Virtual Issues
Optical Molecular Probes, Imaging, and Drug Delivery (2013) Biomedical Optics Express

Richa Mittal, Mihaela Balu, Petra Wilder-Smith, and Eric O. Potma, "Achromatic miniature lens system for coherent Raman scattering microscopy," Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2196-2206 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, Eds., Coherent Raman Scattering Microscopy (CRC Press, 2013).
  2. T. B. Huff and J. X. Cheng, “In vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of sciatic nerve tissue,” J. Microsc.225175–182 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. P. Henry, D. Côté, M. A. Randolph, E. A. Z. Rust, R. W. Redmond, I. E. Kochevar, C. P. Lin, and J. M. Winograd, “Real-time in vivo assessment of the nerve microenvironment with coherent antiStokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Plastic and reconstructive surgery123, 123S–130S (2009). [CrossRef]
  4. J. Zhu, B. Lee, K. K. Buhman, and J. X. Cheng, “A dynamic, cytoplasmic triacylglycerol pool in enterocytes revealed by ex vivo and in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging,” J. Lipid Res.50, 1080–1089 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Fu, W. Sun, Y. Shi, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, “Glutamate excitotoxicity inflicts paranodal myelin splitting and retraction,” PLoS one4, e6705 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. T. Le, H. M. Duren, M. N. Slipchenko, C. D. Hu, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative analysis of lipid metabolism in living caenorhabditis elegans,” J. Lipid Res.51, 672–677 (2010). [CrossRef]
  7. E. Bélanger, J. Crépeau, S. Laffray, R. Vallée, Y. De Koninck, and D. Côté, “Live animal myelin histomorphometry of the spinal cord with video-rate multimodal nonlinear microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.17, 021107 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA102, 16807–16812 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, M. C. Stanley, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science3301368–1370 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. G. Breunig, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, M. Weinigel, J. Lademann, W. Sterry, and K. König, “Combined in vivo multiphoton and CARS imaging of healthy and disease-affected human skin,” Microsc. Res. Techn.75, 492–498 (2012). [CrossRef]
  11. C. Liang, K. B. Sung, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. R. Descour, “Design of a high-numerical-aperture miniature microscope objective for an endoscopic fiber confocal reflectance microscope,” Appl. Opt.41, 4603–4610 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. R. Rouse, A. Kano, J. A. Udovich, S. M. Kroto, and A. F. Gmitro, “Design and demonstration of a miniature catheter for a confocal microendoscope,” Appl. Opt.43, 5763–5771 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. D. Chidley, K. D. Carlson, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. R. Descour, #x0201C;Design, assembly, and optical Bench testing of a high-numerical-aperture miniature injection-molded objective for fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscopy,” Appl. Opt.45, 2545–2554 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. J. Shin, M. C. Pierce, D. Lee, H. Ra, O. Solgaard, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber-optic confocal microscope using a MEMS scanner and miniature objective lens,” Opt. Express15, 9113–9122 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. T. Kester, T. S. Tkaczyk, M. R. Descour, T. Christenson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High numerical aperture microendoscope objective for a fiber confocal reflectance microscope,” Opt. Express15, 2409–2420 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Bao, J. Allen, R. Pattie, R. Vance, and M. Gu, “Fast handheld two-photon fluorescence microendoscope with a 475 mm field of view for in vivo Imaging,” Opt. Lett.33, 1333–1335 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. P. J. Barretto, B. Messerschmidt, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo fluorescence imaging with high-resolution microlenses,” Nat. Meth.6, 511–512 (2009). [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Wu, J. Xi, M. J. Cobb, and X. Li, “Scanning fiber-optic nonlinear endomicroscopy with miniature aspherical compound lens and multimode fiber collector,” Opt. Lett.34, 953–955 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Kyrish, U. Utzinger, M. R. Descour, B. K. Baggett, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Ultra-slim plastic endomicroscope objective for non-linear microscopy,” Opt. Express19, 7603–7615 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA108, 17598–17603 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. Wang, T. B. Huff, Y. Fu, K. Y. Jia, and J. X. Cheng, “Increasing the imaging depth of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with a miniature microscope objective,” Opt. Lett.32, 2212–2214 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. Murugkar, B. Smith, P. Srivastava, A. Moica, M. Naji, C. Brideau, P. K. Stys, and H. Anis, “Miniaturized multimodal CARS microscope based on MEMS scanning and a single laser source,” Opt. Express1823796–23804 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, “Endoscope-compatible confocal microscope using a gradient index-lens system,” Opt. Commun.188, 267–73 (2001). [CrossRef]
  24. C. J. Engelbrecht, R. S. Johnston, E. J. Seibel, and F. Helmchen, “Ultra-compact fiber-optic two-photon microscope for functional fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Opt. Express16, 5556–5564 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J.C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo mammalian brain imaging using one-and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy,” J. Neurophys.92, 3121–3133 (2004). [CrossRef]
  26. M. J. Levene, D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, R. P. Molloy, and W. W. Webb, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of deep brain tissue,” J. Neurophys.91, 1908–1912 (2004). [CrossRef]
  27. L. Fu and M. Gu, “Double-clad photonic crystal fiber coupler for compact nonlinear optical microscopy imaging,” Opt. Lett.31, 1471–1473 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, “High-speed, miniaturized fluorescence microscopy in freely moving mice,” Nat. Meth.5, 935–938 (2008). [CrossRef]
  29. B. G. Saar, R. S. Johnston, C. W. Freudiger, X. S. Xie, and E. J. Seibel, “Coherent Raman scanning fiber endoscopy,” Opt. Lett.36, 2396–2398 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. C. S. Rim, “The optical design of miniaturized microscope objective for CARS imaging catheter with fiber bundle,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea14424–430 (2010). [CrossRef]
  31. Y. Jung, L. Tong, A. Tanaudommongkon, J. X. Cheng, and C. Yang, “In vitro and in vivo nonlinear optical imaging of silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett.9, 2440–2444 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited