OSA's Digital Library

Biomedical Optics Express

Biomedical Optics Express

  • Editor: Joseph A. Izatt
  • Vol. 4, Iss. 4 — Apr. 1, 2013
  • pp: 500–513

A coherent model for turbid imaging with confocal microscopy

Christopher E. Glazowski and James Zavislan  »View Author Affiliations

Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 4, Issue 4, pp. 500-513 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1679 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present an engineering model of coherent imaging within a turbid volume, such as human tissues, with a confocal microscope. The model is built to analyze the statistical effect of aberrations and multiply scattered light on the resulting image. Numerical modeling of theory is compared with experimental results. We describe the construction of a stable phantom that represents the statistical effect of object turbidity on the image recorded. The model and phantom can serve as basis for system optimization in turbid imaging.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(170.1790) Medical optics and biotechnology : Confocal microscopy
(170.3660) Medical optics and biotechnology : Light propagation in tissues
(110.0113) Imaging systems : Imaging through turbid media

ToC Category:
Optics of Tissue and Turbid Media

Original Manuscript: December 12, 2012
Revised Manuscript: February 19, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: February 22, 2013
Published: March 4, 2013

Christopher E. Glazowski and James Zavislan, "A coherent model for turbid imaging with confocal microscopy," Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 500-513 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. C. Sheppard and D. Shotton, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (Springer, 1997).
  2. T. Wilson, Confocal Microscopy (Academic Press, 1990).
  3. M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. Webb, and R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: Melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol.104, 946–952 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Psaty and A. Halpern, “Current and emerging technologies in melanoma diagnosis: the state of the art,” Clin. Dermatol.27, 35–45 (2009). [CrossRef]
  5. S. Gonzalez and Y. Gilaberte-Calzada, “In vivo reflectance-mode confocal microscopy in clinical dermatology and cosmetology,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci.30, 1–15 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. Ahlgrimm-Siess, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, T. Cao, M. Oliviero, A. Scope, and H. S. Rabinovitz, “Reflectance confocal microscopy in the daily practice,” Semin. Cutan Med. Surg.28, 180–189 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Smithpeter, A. Dunn, A. Welch, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Penetration depth limits of in vivo confocal reflectance imaging,” Appl. Opt.37, 2749–2754 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Kempe, W. Rudolph, and E. Welsch, “Comparative study of confocal and heterodyne microscopy for imaging through scattering media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A13, 46–52 (1996). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Kempe, A. Genack, W. Rudolph, and P. Dorn, “Ballistic and diffuse light detection in confocal and heterodyne imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14, 216–223 (1997). [CrossRef]
  10. C. Glazowski and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Optimal detection pinhole for lowering speckle noise while maintaining adequate optical sectioning in confocal reflectance microscopes,” J. Biomed. Opt.17, 085001 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, and M. Yadlowsky, “Confocal microscopy in turbid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A11, 2226–2235 (1994). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Schmitt and K. Ben-Letaief, “Efficient monte carlo simulation of confocal microscopy in biological tissue,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A13, 952–961 (1996). [CrossRef]
  13. J. Lu, X.-H. Hu, and K. Dong, “Modeling of the rough-interface effect on a converging light beam propagating in a skin tissue phantom,” Appl. Opt.39, 5890–5897 (2000). [CrossRef]
  14. C. Glazowski and J. Zavislan, “Coherent pupil engineered scanning reflectance confocal microscope for turbid imaging,” Proc. SPIE7570, 75700O (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw Hill, 1996).
  16. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, 2000).
  17. B. Simon and C. A. Dimarzio, “Simulation of a theta line-scanning confocal microscope.” J. Biomed. Opt.12, 064020 (2007). [CrossRef]
  18. A. W. W. Cheong and S. Prahl, “A review of the optical properties biological tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26, 2166–2185 (1990). [CrossRef]
  19. J. Goodman, “Some fundamental properties of speckle,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.66, 1145–1150 (1976). [CrossRef]
  20. Z. Wang, C. Glazowski, and J. Zavislan, “Modulation transfer function measurement of scanning reflectance microscopes,” J. Biomed. Opt.12, 051802 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Supplementary Material

» Media 1: MP4 (143 KB)     

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited