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Biomedical Optics Express

Biomedical Optics Express

  • Editor: Joseph A. Izatt
  • Vol. 4, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 2013
  • pp: 760–771

Coherence-gated Doppler: a fiber sensor for precise localization of blood flow

Chia-Pin Liang, Yalun Wu, Joe Schmitt, Paul E. Bigeleisen, Justin Slavin, M. Samir Jafri, Cha-Min Tang, and Yu Chen  »View Author Affiliations

Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 4, Issue 5, pp. 760-771 (2013)

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Miniature optical sensors that can detect blood vessels in front of advancing instruments will significantly benefit many interventional procedures. Towards this end, we developed a thin and flexible coherence-gated Doppler (CGD) fiber probe (O.D. = 0.125 mm) that can be integrated with minimally-invasive tools to provide real-time audio feedback of blood flow at precise locations in front of the probe. Coherence-gated Doppler (CGD) is a hybrid technology with features of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT). Because of its confocal optical design and coherence-gating capabilities, CGD provides higher spatial resolution than LDF. And compared to DOCT imaging systems, CGD is simpler and less costly to produce. In vivo studies of rat femoral vessels using CGD demonstrate its ability to distinguish between artery, vein and bulk movement of the surrounding soft tissue. Finally, by placing the CGD probe inside a 30-gauge needle and advancing it into the brain of an anesthetized sheep, we demonstrate that it is capable of detecting vessels in front of advancing probes during simulated stereotactic neurosurgical procedures. Using simultaneous ultrasound (US) monitoring from the surface of the brain we show that CGD can detect at-risk blood vessels up to 3 mm in front of the advancing probe. The improved spatial resolution afforded by coherence gating combined with the simplicity, minute size and robustness of the CGD probe suggest it may benefit many minimally invasive procedures and enable it to be embedded into a variety of surgical instruments.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(170.3340) Medical optics and biotechnology : Laser Doppler velocimetry
(170.4500) Medical optics and biotechnology : Optical coherence tomography
(280.1415) Remote sensing and sensors : Biological sensing and sensors

ToC Category:
Optical Coherence Tomography

Original Manuscript: January 28, 2013
Revised Manuscript: March 23, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: March 23, 2013
Published: April 24, 2013

Chia-Pin Liang, Yalun Wu, Joe Schmitt, Paul E. Bigeleisen, Justin Slavin, M. Samir Jafri, Cha-Min Tang, and Yu Chen, "Coherence-gated Doppler: a fiber sensor for precise localization of blood flow," Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 760-771 (2013)

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