OSA's Digital Library

Biomedical Optics Express

Biomedical Optics Express

  • Editor: Joseph A. Izatt
  • Vol. 5, Iss. 4 — Apr. 1, 2014
  • pp: 1075–1089

Contact-free monitoring of circulation and perfusion dynamics based on the analysis of thermal imagery

Carina Barbosa Pereira, Michael Czaplik, Nikolai Blanik, Rolf Rossaint, Vladimir Blazek, and Steffen Leonhardt  »View Author Affiliations

Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 5, Issue 4, pp. 1075-1089 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (3217 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Acute circulatory disorders are commonly associated with systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) and sepsis. During sepsis, microcirculatory perfusion is compromised leading to tissue hypoperfusion and potentially to multiple organ dysfunction. In the present study, acute lung injury (ALI), one of the major causes leading to SIRS and sepsis, was experimentally induced in six female pigs. To investigate the progress of body temperature distribution, measurements with a long-wave infrared camera were carried out. Temperature centralization was evidenced during ALI owing to impairments of peripheral perfusion. In addition, statistical analysis demonstrated strong correlations between (a) standard deviation of the skin temperature distribution (SD) and shock index (SI) (p<0.0005), (b) SD and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (p<0.0005), (c) ΔT/Δx and SI (p<0.0005), as well as between (d) ΔT/Δx and MAP (p<0.0005). For clarification purposes, ΔT/Δx is a parameter implemented to quantify the spatial temperature gradient. This pioneering study created promising results. It demonstrated the capacity of infrared thermography as well as of the indexes, SD and ΔT/Δx, to detect impairments in both circulation and tissue perfusion.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.3060) Detectors : Infrared
(170.1610) Medical optics and biotechnology : Clinical applications
(170.2655) Medical optics and biotechnology : Functional monitoring and imaging

ToC Category:
Cardiovascular Applications

Original Manuscript: November 20, 2013
Revised Manuscript: January 9, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: January 20, 2014
Published: March 5, 2014

Carina Barbosa Pereira, Michael Czaplik, Nikolai Blanik, Rolf Rossaint, Vladimir Blazek, and Steffen Leonhardt, "Contact-free monitoring of circulation and perfusion dynamics based on the analysis of thermal imagery," Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 1075-1089 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. P.  Dellinger, M. M.  Levy, J. M.  Carlet, J.  Bion, M. M.  Parker, R.  Jaeschke, K.  Reinhart, D. C.  Angus, C.  Brun-Buisson, R.  Beale, T.  Calandra, J. F.  Dhainaut, H.  Gerlach, M.  Harvey, J. J.  Marini, J.  Marshall, M.  Ranieri, G.  Ramsay, J.  Sevransky, B. T.  Thompson, S.  Townsend, J. S.  Vender, J. L.  Zimmerman, J. L.  Vincent, “Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008,” Intensive Care Med. 34(1), 17–60 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. M.  Levy, M. P.  Fink, J. C.  Marshall, E.  Abraham, D.  Angus, D.  Cook, J.  Cohen, S. M.  Opal, J. L.  Vincent, G.  RamsaySCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS, “2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International sepsis definitions conference,” Crit. Care Med. 31(4), 1250–1256 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M.  Odeh, “Sepsis, septicaemia, sepsis syndrome, and septic shock: the correct definition and use,” Postgrad. Med. J. 72(844), 66 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. A.  Matthay, G. A.  Zimmerman, C.  Esmon, J.  Bhattacharya, B.  Coller, C. M.  Doerschuk, J.  Floros, M. A.  Gimbrone, E.  Hoffman, R. D.  Hubmayr, M.  Leppert, S.  Matalon, R.  Munford, P.  Parsons, A. S.  Slutsky, K. J.  Tracey, P.  Ward, D. B.  Gail, A. L.  Harabin, “Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(7), 1027–1035 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J.  Villar, J.  Blanco, H.  Zhang, A. S.  Slutsky, “Ventilator-induced lung injury and sepsis: two sides of the same coin?” Minerva Anestesiol. 77(6), 647–653 (2011). [PubMed]
  6. D.  Di Giantomasso, C. N.  May, R.  Bellomo, “Vital organ blood flow during hyperdynamic sepsis,” Chest 124(3), 1053–1059 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. C. P. L.  Shiramizo, A. R.  Marra, M. S.  Durão, Â. T.  Paes, M. B.  Edmond, O. F.  Pavão dos Santos, “Decreasing mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock patients by implementing a sepsis bundle in a hospital setting,” PLoS ONE 6(11), e26790 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F.  Stüber, “Effects of genomic polymorphisms on the course of sepsis: is there a concept for gene therapy?” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 12(Suppl 17), S60–S64 (2001). [PubMed]
  9. J.-H.  Wu, C.-Y.  Chen, P.-N.  Tsao, W.-S.  Hsieh, H.-C.  Chou, “Neonatal sepsis: a 6-year analysis in a neonatal care unit in Taiwan,” Pediatr. Neonatol. 50(3), 88–95 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R.  Daniels, “Surviving the first hours in sepsis: getting the basics right (an intensivist’s perspective),” J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 66(Suppl 2), ii11–ii23 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J.-L.  Vincent, Y.  Sakr, C. L.  Sprung, V. M.  Ranieri, K.  Reinhart, H.  Gerlach, R.  Moreno, J.  Carlet, J.-R.  Le Gall, D.  PayenSepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients Investigators, “Sepsis in European intensive care units: Results of the SOAP study,” Crit. Care Med. 34(2), 344–353 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K.  Yano, P. C.  Liaw, J. M.  Mullington, S.-C.  Shih, H.  Okada, N.  Bodyak, P. M.  Kang, L.  Toltl, B.  Belikoff, J.  Buras, B. T.  Simms, J. P.  Mizgerd, P.  Carmeliet, S. A.  Karumanchi, W. C.  Aird, “Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important determinant of sepsis morbidity and mortality,” J. Exp. Med. 203(6), 1447–1458 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. C.  Angus, W. T.  Linde-Zwirble, J.  Lidicker, G.  Clermont, J.  Carcillo, M. R.  Pinsky, “Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care,” Crit. Care Med. 29(7), 1303–1310 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L.  Liu, H. L.  Johnson, S.  Cousens, J.  Perin, S.  Scott, J. E.  Lawn, I.  Rudan, H.  Campbell, R.  Cibulskis, M.  Li, C.  Mathers, R. E.  BlackChild Health Epidemiology Reference Group of WHO and UNICEF, “Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000,” Lancet 379(9832), 2151–2161 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. E.  Lawn, S.  Cousens, J.  ZupanLancet Neonatal Survival Steering Team, “4 million neonatal deaths: When? Where? Why?” Lancet 365(9462), 891–900 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. L.  Zanotti-Cavazzoni, R. P.  Dellinger, “Hemodynamic optimization of sepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusion,” Crit. Care 10(Suppl 3), S2 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T.  Koch, S.  Geiger, M. J. R.  Ragaller, “Monitoring of organ dysfunction in sepsis/systemic inflammatory response syndrome: Novel strategies,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 12(Suppl 17), S53–S59 (2001). [PubMed]
  18. M. D. Menger, B. Vollmar, and K. Messmer, “Sepsis and nutritional blood flow,” in Sepsis, P. D. K. Reinhart, P. D. K. Eyrich, and P. D. C. Sprung, ed. (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, 1994).
  19. K. D.  Fairchild, T. M.  O’Shea, “Heart rate characteristics: Physiomarkers for detection of late-onset neonatal sepsis,” Clin. Perinatol. 37(3), 581–598 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. E.  Rivers, B.  Nguyen, S.  Havstad, J.  Ressler, A.  Muzzin, B.  Knoblich, E.  Peterson, M.  TomlanovichEarly Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group, “Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(19), 1368–1377 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A.  Kumar, D.  Roberts, K. E.  Wood, B.  Light, J. E.  Parrillo, S.  Sharma, R.  Suppes, D.  Feinstein, S.  Zanotti, L.  Taiberg, D.  Gurka, A.  Kumar, M.  Cheang, “Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock,” Crit. Care Med. 34(6), 1589–1596 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. T. J.  Love, “Thermography as an indicator of blood perfusion,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 335(1 Thermal Chara), 429–437 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. E. F. J.  Ring, H.  McEvoy, A.  Jung, J.  Zuber, G.  Machin, “New standards for devices used for the measurement of human body temperature,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 34(4), 249–253 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. B.  Knobel, B. D.  Guenther, H. E.  Rice, “Thermoregulation and thermography in neonatal physiology and disease,” Biol. Res. Nurs. 13(3), 274–282 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. L. B. Rowell, Human Circulation: Regulation during Physical Stress (Oxford University Press, 1986).
  26. O. J. Garden, A. W. Bradbury, J. L. R. Forsythe, and R. W. Parks, Principles and Practice of Surgery (Elsevier Health Sciences, 2012).
  27. A. K.  Abbas, K.  Heimann, K.  Jergus, T.  Orlikowsky, S.  Leonhardt, “Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography,” Biomed. Eng. Online 10(1), 93 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. M.  Garbey, N.  Sun, A.  Merla, I.  Pavlidis, “Contact-free measurement of cardiac pulse based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1418–1426 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. K.  Heimann, K.  Jergus, A. K.  Abbas, N.  Heussen, S.  Leonhardt, T.  Orlikowsky, “Infrared thermography for detailed registration of thermoregulation in premature infants,” J. Perinat. Med. 41(5), 613–620 (2013). [PubMed]
  30. G. F.  Lewis, R. G.  Gatto, S. W.  Porges, “A novel method for extracting respiration rate and relative tidal volume from infrared thermography,” Psychophysiology 48(7), 877–887 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. N.  Memarian, A. N.  Venetsanopoulos, T.  Chau, “Infrared thermography as an access pathway for individuals with severe motor impairments,” J. Neuroeng. Rehabil. 6(1), 11 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. A. Merla and G. L. Romani, “Functional infrared imaging in medicine: A quantitative diagnostic approach,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp. 224–227.
  33. G. C.  Wishart, M.  Campisi, M.  Boswell, D.  Chapman, V.  Shackleton, S.  Iddles, A.  Hallett, P. D.  Britton, “The accuracy of digital infrared imaging for breast cancer detection in women undergoing breast biopsy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 36(6), 535–540 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. M.  Czaplik, I.  Biener, R.  Dembinski, P.  Pelosi, T.  Soodt, W.  Schroeder, S.  Leonhardt, G.  Marx, R.  Rossaint, J.  Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. N.  Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9(1), 62–66 (1979). [CrossRef]
  36. T.  Berger, J.  Green, T.  Horeczko, Y.  Hagar, N.  Garg, A.  Suarez, E.  Panacek, N.  Shapiro, “Shock index and early recognition of sepsis in the emergency department: Pilot study,” West J. Emerg Med 14(2), 168–174 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. Y.  Yasaka, R. G.  Khemani, B. P.  Markovitz, “Is shock index associated with outcome in children with sepsis/septic shock?*,” Pediatr. Crit. Care Med. 14(8), e372–e379 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. M. Y.  Rady, P.  Nightingale, R. A.  Little, J. D.  Edwards, “Shock index: a re-evaluation in acute circulatory failure,” Resuscitation 23(3), 227–234 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. S. L. Weinberg and S. K. Abramowitz, Statistics using SPSS: An integrative approach (Cambridge University Press, 2008).
  40. K. F. W.  Messmer, “Traumatic shock in polytrauma: Circulatory parameters, biochemistry, and resuscitation,” World J. Surg. 7(1), 26–30 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited