OSA's Digital Library

Biomedical Optics Express

Biomedical Optics Express

  • Editor: Joseph A. Izatt
  • Vol. 5, Iss. 8 — Aug. 1, 2014
  • pp: 2537–2547

Development of a luminous textile for reflective pulse oximetry measurements

Marek Krehel, Martin Wolf, Luciano F. Boesel, René M. Rossi, Gian-Luca Bona, and Lukas J. Scherer  »View Author Affiliations

Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 5, Issue 8, pp. 2537-2547 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2416 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



In this paper, a textile-based sensing principle for long term photopletysmography (PPG) monitoring is presented. Optical fibers were embroidered into textiles such that out-coupling and in-coupling of light was possible. The “light-in light-out” properties of the textile enabled the spectroscopic characterization of human tissue. For the optimization of the textile sensor, three different carrier fabrics and different fiber modifications were compared. The sample with best light coupling efficiency was successfully used to measure heart rate and SpO2 values of a subject. The latter was determined by using a modified Beer-Lambert law and measuring the light attenuation at two different wavelengths (632 nm and 894 nm). Moreover, the system was adapted to work in reflection mode which makes the sensor more versatile. The measurements were additionally compared with commercially available system and showed good correlation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors

ToC Category:
Spectroscopic Diagnostics

Original Manuscript: April 29, 2014
Revised Manuscript: June 7, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: June 8, 2014
Published: July 9, 2014

Marek Krehel, Martin Wolf, Luciano F. Boesel, René M. Rossi, Gian-Luca Bona, and Lukas J. Scherer, "Development of a luminous textile for reflective pulse oximetry measurements," Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2537-2547 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. W. Zheng, Z. B. Zhang, T. H. Wu, and Y. Zhang, “A wearable mobihealth care system supporting real-time diagnosis and alarm,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.45(9), 877–885 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. N. Scanaill, S. Carew, P. Barralon, N. Noury, D. Lyons, and G. M. Lyons, “A review of approaches to mobility telemonitoring of the elderly in their living environment,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(4), 547–563 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. R. Post, M. Orth, P. R. Russo, and N. Gershenfeld, “E-broidery: Design and fabrication of textile-based computing,” IBM Syst. J.39(3.4), 840–860 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. O. Ziemann, J. Krauser, P. E. Zamzow, and W. Daum, POF-Handbook (Springer, Berlin, 2008).
  5. M. G. Kuzyk, “Polymer Fiber Optics,” (2007), pp. 97–98.
  6. T. Pola and J. Vanhala, “Textile electrodes in ECG measurement,” Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing, 635–639 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Krehel, R. M. Rossi, G. L. Bona, and L. J. Scherer, “Characterization of Flexible Copolymer Optical Fibers for Force Sensing Applications,” Sensors (Basel)13(9), 11956–11968 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Selm, E. A. Gurel, M. Rothmaier, R. M. Rossi, and L. J. Scherer, “Polymeric Optical Fiber Fabrics for Illumination and Sensorial Applications in Textiles,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct.21(11), 1061–1071 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Rothmaier, B. Selm, S. Spichtig, D. Haensse, and M. Wolf, “Photonic textiles for pulse oximetry,” Opt. Express16(17), 12973–12986 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Balas, “Review of biomedical optical imaging-a powerful, non-invasive, non-ionizing technology for improving in vivo diagnosis,” Meas. Sci. Technol.20(10), 104020 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. F. Narbonneau, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, J. de Jonckheere, R. Logier, J. Zinke, J. Witt, and K. Krebber, “Smart Textile Embedding Optical Fiber Sensors for Healthcare Monitoring during MRI,” Adv. Sci. Technol.60, 134–143 (2008). [CrossRef]
  12. T. G. Giallorenzi, J. A. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. H. Sigel, J. H. Cole, S. C. Rashleigh, and R. G. Priest, “Optical Fiber Sensor Technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(4), 626–665 (1982). [CrossRef]
  13. S. Liehr, P. Lenke, M. Wendt, K. Krebber, M. Seeger, E. Thiele, H. Metschies, B. Gebreselassie, and J. C. Munich, “Polymer Optical Fiber Sensors for Distributed Strain Measurement and Application in Structural Health Monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J.9(11), 1330–1338 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. J. Y. Ding, M. R. Shahriari, and G. H. Sigel, “Fiber Optic Ph Sensors Prepared by Sol-Gel Immobilization Technique,” Electron. Lett.27(17), 1560–1562 (1991). [CrossRef]
  15. J. Witt, F. Narbonneau, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, J. De Jonckheere, M. Jeanne, D. Kinet, B. Paquet, A. Depré, L. T. D’Angelo, T. Thiel, and R. Logier, “Medical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors for monitoring of respiratory movement,” IEEE Sens. J.12(1), 246–254 (2012). [CrossRef]
  16. J. Rantala, J. Hannikainen, and J. Vanhala, “Fiber optic sensors for wearable applications,” Pers. Ubiquitous Comput.15(1), 85–96 (2011). [CrossRef]
  17. E. Hanada, “The electromagnetic environment of hospitals: how it is affected by the strength of electromagnetic fields generated both inside and outside the hospital,” Ann. Ist. Super. Sanita43(3), 208–217 (2007). [PubMed]
  18. R. F. Edlich, K. L. Winters, C. R. Woodard, R. M. Buschbacher, W. B. Long, J. H. Gebhart, and E. K. Ma, “Pressure ulcer prevention,” J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants14(4), 285–304 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. Woodgate and L. J. Kristjanson, “A young child’s pain: How parents and nurses ‘take care’,” Int. J. Nurs. Stud.33(3), 271–284 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. L. J. R. Hufenus, D. Hegemann, F. A. Reifler, and S. Gaan, “Developing base technologies for tomorrow's smart textiles,” 18th International conference on composite materials (2011).
  21. B. Toth, A. Becker, and B. Seelbach-Göbel, “Oxygen saturation in healthy newborn infants immediately after birth measured by pulse oximetry,” Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.266(2), 105–107 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. T. Rheineck-Leyssius and C. J. Kalkman, “Influence of pulse oximeter settings on the frequency of alarms and detection of hypoxemia: Theoretical effects of artifact rejection, alarm delay, averaging, median filtering or a lower setting of the alarm limit,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput.14(3), 151–156 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. P. Isbister, “Physiology and pathophysiology of blood volume regulation,” Transfus. Sci.18(3), 409–423 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. B. Venema, N. Blanik, V. Blazek, H. Gehring, A. Opp, and S. Leonhardt, “Advances in reflective oxygen saturation monitoring with a novel in-ear sensor system: Results of a human hypoxia study,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59(7), 2003–2010 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. E. K. Svanberg, P. Wollmer, S. Andersson-Engels, and J. Akeson, “Physiological influence of basic perturbations assessed by non-invasive optical techniques in humans,” Br. J. Anaesth.108, 272–273 (2012).
  26. U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Surg.37(5), 1017–1026 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, L. A. Paunescu, A. Michalos, and E. Gratton, “Regional differences of Hemodynamics and oxygenation in the human calf muscle detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol.18(9), 1094–1101 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. A. C. M. Dassel, R. Graaff, A. Meijer, W. G. Zijlstra, and J. G. Aarnoudse, “Reflectance pulse oximetry at the forehead of newborns: The influence of varying pressure on the probe,” J. Clin. Monit.12(6), 421–428 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. N. A. A. Rahim, W. McDaniel, K. Bardon, S. Srinivasan, V. Vickerman, P. T. C. So, and J. H. Moon, “Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for Two-Photon Imaging of Endothelial Cells in a Tissue Model,” Adv. Mater.21(34), 3492–3496 (2009). [CrossRef]
  30. A. Louw, C. Cracco, C. Cerf, A. Harf, P. Duvaldestin, F. Lemaire, and L. Brochard, “Accuracy of pulse oximetry in the intensive care unit,” Intensive Care Med.27(10), 1606–1613 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited