OSA's Digital Library

Biomedical Optics Express

Biomedical Optics Express

  • Editor: Joseph A. Izatt
  • Vol. 5, Iss. 9 — Sep. 1, 2014
  • pp: 2978–2987

A high-efficiency fiber-based imaging system for co-registered autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography

Hamid Pahlevaninezhad, Anthony M. D. Lee, Tawimas Shaipanich, Rashika Raizada, Lucas Cahill, Geoffrey Hohert, Victor X. D. Yang, Stephen Lam, Calum MacAulay, and Pierre Lane  »View Author Affiliations

Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 5, Issue 9, pp. 2978-2987 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (3000 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present a power-efficient fiber-based imaging system capable of co-registered autofluorescence imaging and optical coherence tomography (AF/OCT). The system employs a custom fiber optic rotary joint (FORJ) with an embedded dichroic mirror to efficiently combine the OCT and AF pathways. This three-port wavelength multiplexing FORJ setup has a throughput of more than 83% for collected AF emission, significantly more efficient compared to previously reported fiber-based methods. A custom 900 µm diameter catheter ‒ consisting of a rotating lens assembly, double-clad fiber (DCF), and torque cable in a stationary plastic tube ‒ was fabricated to allow AF/OCT imaging of small airways in vivo. We demonstrate the performance of this system ex vivo in resected porcine airway specimens and in vivo in human on fingers, in the oral cavity, and in peripheral airways.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
(110.2350) Imaging systems : Fiber optics imaging
(110.4500) Imaging systems : Optical coherence tomography
(170.2520) Medical optics and biotechnology : Fluorescence microscopy
(170.3890) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics instrumentation

ToC Category:
Endoscopes, Catheters and Micro-Optics

Original Manuscript: June 20, 2014
Revised Manuscript: July 31, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: August 1, 2014
Published: August 6, 2014

Hamid Pahlevaninezhad, Anthony M. D. Lee, Tawimas Shaipanich, Rashika Raizada, Lucas Cahill, Geoffrey Hohert, Victor X. D. Yang, Stephen Lam, Calum MacAulay, and Pierre Lane, "A high-efficiency fiber-based imaging system for co-registered autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography," Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2978-2987 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazdar, “Localization of bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Chest113(3), 696–702 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. C. Kennedy, S. Lam, and F. R. Hirsch, “Review of recent advances in fluorescence bronchoscopy in early localization of central airway lung cancer,” Oncologist6(3), 257–262 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, and B. Palcic, “Autofluorescence of normal and malignant bronchial tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med.11(2), 99–105 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. J. Venmans, H. van der Linden, T. J. van Boxem, P. E. Postmus, E. F. Smit, and T. G. Sutedja, “Early detection of pre-invasive lesions in high risk patients. A comparison of conventional fiber optic and fluorescence bronchoscopy,” J. Bronchoscopy5(4), 280–283 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer49(3), 387–394 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Pahlevaninezhad, I. Cecic, A. M. D. Lee, A. H. Kyle, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Multimodal tissue imaging: using coregistered optical tomography data to estimate tissue autofluorescence intensity change due to scattering and absorption by neoplastic epithelial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(10), 106007 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, “Dual modality instrument for simultaneous optical coherence tomography imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 618–623 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Yuan, Q. Li, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and Y. Chen, “Three-dimensional coregistered optical coherence tomography and line-scanning fluorescence laminar optical tomography,” Opt. Lett.34(11), 1615–1617 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Park, J. A. Jo, S. Shrestha, P. Pande, Q. Wan, and B. E. Applegate, “A dual-modality optical coherence tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system for simultaneous morphological and biochemical tissue characterization,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 186–200 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Chen, S. Yuan, J. Wirewille, R. Naphas, Q. Li, T. R. Blackwell, P. T. Winnard, V. Raman, and K. Glunde, “Integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence laminar optical tomography (FLOT),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 755–766 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Gaertner, P. Cimalla, L. Knels, S. Meissner, C. Schnabel, W. M. Kubler, and E. Koch, “Investigation of alveolar tissue deformations using OCT combined with fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8091, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Techniques V, 80911P (2011).
  17. J. Y. Qu, Z. Huang, and J. Hua, “Excitation-and-collection geometry insensitive fluorescence imaging of tissue-simulating turbid media,” Appl. Opt.39(19), 3344–3356 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. J. McNichols, A. Gowda, B. A. Bell, R. M. Johnigan, K. H. Calhoun, and M. Motamedi, “Development of an endoscopic fluorescence image guided OCT probe for oral cancer detection,” Proc. SPIE4254, 23–30 (2001). [CrossRef]
  19. Y. T. Pan, T. Q. Xie, C. W. Du, S. Bastacky, S. Meyers, and M. L. Zeidel, “Enhancing early bladder cancer detection with fluorescence-guided endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(24), 2485–2487 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, “A miniature endoscope for simultaneous OCT-LIF measurement,” Appl. Opt.43(1), 113–121 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. L. P. Hariri, A. R. Tumlinson, D. G. Besselsen, U. Utzinger, E. W. Gerner, and J. K. Barton, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a murine colon cancer model,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(4), 305–313 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. R. A. Wall, G. T. Bonnema, and J. K. Barton, “Novel focused OCT-LIF endoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(3), 421–430 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol.13(6), 1173–1182 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. M. Fard, P. Vacas-Jacques, E. Hamidi, H. Wang, R. W. Carruth, J. A. Gardecki, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography--near infrared spectroscopy system and catheter for intravascular imaging,” Opt. Express21(25), 30849–30858 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Combined multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography using a 12-fs broadband source,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 020502 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. R. Tumlinson, J. K. Barton, B. Považay, H. Sattman, A. Unterhuber, R. A. Leitgeb, and W. Drexler, “Endoscope-tip interferometer for ultrahigh resolution frequency domain optical coherence tomography in mouse colon,” Opt. Express14(5), 1878–1887 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M. T. Myaing, D. J. MacDonald, and X. Li, “Fiber-optic scanning two-photon fluorescence endoscope,” Opt. Lett.31(8), 1076–1078 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034005 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. S. Tang, Y. Zhou, K. K. H. Chan, and T. Lai, “Multiscale multimodal imaging with multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.36(24), 4800–4802 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. G. Liu and Z. Chen, “Fiber-based combined optical coherence and multiphoton endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036010 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. K. Murari, Y. Zhang, S. Li, Y. Chen, M. J. Li, and X. Li, “Compensation-free, all-fiber-optic, two-photon endomicroscopy at 1.55 μm,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1299–1301 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. C. Dai, X. Liu, and S. Jiao, “Simultaneous optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence microscopy with a single light source,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 080502 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. S. Y. Ryu, H. Y. Choi, J. Na, E. S. Choi, and B. H. Lee, “Combined system of optical coherence tomography and fluorescence spectroscopy based on double-cladding fiber,” Opt. Lett.33(20), 2347–2349 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. H. Bao, S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Lee, W. Tao, and M. Gu, “Nonlinear endomicroscopy using a double-clad fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 995–997 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Rivard, M. Strupler, D. Morneau, F. Verpillat, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Double-clad fiber coupler for endoscopy,” Opt. Express18(10), 9755–9764 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. J. Mavadia, J. Xi, Y. Chen, and X. Li, “An all-fiber-optic endoscopy platform for simultaneous OCT and fluorescence imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2851–2859 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett.29(20), 2408–2410 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. L. Wang, H. Y. Choi, Y. Jung, B. H. Lee, and K. T. Kim, “Optical probe based on double-clad optical fiber for fluorescence spectroscopy,” Opt. Express15(26), 17681–17689 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. D. Lorenser, B. C. Quirk, M. Auger, W. J. Madore, R. W. Kirk, N. Godbout, D. D. Sampson, C. Boudoux, and R. A. McLaughlin, “Dual-modality needle probe for combined fluorescence imaging and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.38(3), 266–268 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. T. Chen, N. Zhang, T. Huo, C. Wang, J. G. Zheng, T. Zhou, and P. Xue, “Tiny endoscopic optical coherence tomography probe driven by a miniaturized hollow ultrasonic motor,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(8), 086011 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. W. J. Madore, E. De Montigny, O. Ouellette, S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Leduc, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Asymmetric double-clad fiber couplers for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett.38(21), 4514–4517 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. H. Pahlevaninezhad, A. M. D. Lee, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Coregistered autofluorescence-optical coherence tomography imaging of human lung sections,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(3), 036022 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited