OSA's Digital Library

Biomedical Optics Express

Biomedical Optics Express

  • Editor: Joseph A. Izatt
  • Vol. 3, Iss. 9 — Sep. 1, 2012
  • pp: 1964–1971
« Show journal navigation

Visibility enhancement of common bile duct for laparoscopic cholecystectomy by vivid fiber-optic indication: a porcine experiment trial

Hsing-Ying Lin, Chen-Han Huang, Shannon Shy, Yu-Chung Chang, Hsiang-Chen Chui, Tsung-Chih Yu, and Chih-Han Chang  »View Author Affiliations


Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 3, Issue 9, pp. 1964-1971 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.3.001964


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1775 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Bile duct injury (BDI) is the most serious iatrogenic complication during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and occurs easily in inexperienced surgeons since the position of common bile duct (CBD) and its related ductal junctions are hard to precisely identify in the hepatic anatomy during surgery. BDI can be devastating, leading to chronic morbidity, high mortality, and prolonged hospitalization. In addition, it is the most frequent injury resulting in litigation and the most likely injury associated with a successful medical malpractice claim against surgeons. This study introduces a novel method for conveniently and rapidly indicating the anatomical location of CBD during LC by the direct fiber-optic illumination of 532-nm diode-pumped solid state laser through a microstructured plastic optical fiber to avoid the wrong identification of CBD and the injury from mistakenly cutting the CBD that can lead to permanent and even life threatening consequences. Six porcine were used for preliminary intra-CBD illumination experiments via laparotomy and direct duodenal incision to insert the invented CBD illumination laser catheter with nonharmful but satisfactory visual optical density.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

During the past decade, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become the procedure of choice for the treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis [1

1. M. C. Richardson, G. Bell, and G. M. FullartonM. C. RichardsonG. BellG. M. FullartonWest of Scotland Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Audit Group, “Incidence and nature of bile duct injuries following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an audit of 5913 cases,” Br. J. Surg. 83(10), 1356–1360 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,2

2. D. R. Fletcher, M. S. T. Hobbs, P. Tan, L. J. Valinsky, R. L. Hockey, T. J. Pikora, M. W. Knuiman, H. J. Sheiner, and A. Edis, “Complications of cholecystectomy: risks of the laparoscopic approach and protective effects of operative cholangiography: a population-based study,” Ann. Surg. 229(4), 449–457 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Laparoscopy has several benefits to the patient, including less perioperative pain, improved cosmesis, decreased length of hospitalization, and earlier return to normal activities. Unfortunately, the benefits of laparoscopy do not come without the potential for great harm. Numerous retrospective reports have demonstrated that the incidence of iatrogenic common bile duct (CBD) injury during LC is relatively higher when compared with open cholecystectomy, at least 0.1%–0.2% versus 0.4%–0.7% [2

2. D. R. Fletcher, M. S. T. Hobbs, P. Tan, L. J. Valinsky, R. L. Hockey, T. J. Pikora, M. W. Knuiman, H. J. Sheiner, and A. Edis, “Complications of cholecystectomy: risks of the laparoscopic approach and protective effects of operative cholangiography: a population-based study,” Ann. Surg. 229(4), 449–457 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14

14. J.-F. Gigot, J. Etienne, R. Aerts, E. Wibin, B. Dallemagne, F. Deweer, D. Fortunati, M. Legrand, L. Vereecken, J.-M. Doumont, P. Van Reepinghen, and C. Beguin, “The dramatic reality of biliary tract injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. an anonymous multicenter Belgian survey of 65 patients,” Surg. Endosc. 11(12), 1171–1178 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Despite the broad experience of surgeons with LC after the learning curve, rates of CBD injury have not declined [7

7. D. C. Wherry, M. R. Marohn, M. P. Malanoski, S. P. Hetz, and N. M. Rich, “An external audit of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the steady state performed in medical treatment facilities of the Department of Defense,” Ann. Surg. 224(2), 145–154 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9

9. S. Adamsen, O. H. Hansen, P. Funch-Jensen, S. Schulze, J. G. Stage, and P. Wara, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective nationwide series,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 184(6), 571–578 (1997). [PubMed]

,15

15. J. Calvete, L. Sabater, B. Camps, A. Verdú, A. Gomez-Portilla, J. Martín, M. A. Torrico, B. Flor, N. Cassinello, and S. Lledó, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: myth or reality of the learning curve?” Surg. Endosc. 14(7), 608–611 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,16

16. B. J. Carroll, M. Birth, and E. H. Phillips, “Common bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy that result in litigation,” Surg. Endosc. 12(4), 310–314 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Though serious complications of CBD injury during cholecystectomy occurs with relative infrequency [17

17. D. R. Flum, E. P. Dellinger, A. Cheadle, L. Chan, and T. Koepsell, “Intraoperative cholangiography and risk of common bile duct injury during cholecystectomy,” JAMA 289(13), 1639–1644 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19

19. G. B. Melton, K. D. Lillemoe, J. L. Cameron, P. A. Sauter, J. Coleman, and C. J. Yeo, “Major bile duct injuries associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy: effect of surgical repair on quality of life,” Ann. Surg. 235(6), 888–895 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], they can be catastrophe, leading to patient morbidity and mortality, impaired quality of life and functional status, and premature death [20

20. D. Boerma, E. A. J. Rauws, Y. C. A. Keulemans, J. J. G. H. Bergman, H. Obertop, K. Huibregtse, and D. J. Gouma, “Impaired quality of life 5 years after bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective analysis,” Ann. Surg. 234(6), 750–757 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22

22. W. C. Chapman, A. Halevy, L. H. Blumgart, and I. S. Benjamin, “Postcholecystectomy bile duct strictures. Management and outcome in 130 patients,” Arch. Surg. 130(6), 597–604 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Among Medicare beneficiaries in 1990s, after CBD injury there was approximately 3-fold increase in risk of short-term death compared with uninjured patients [10

10. D. R. Flum, A. Cheadle, C. Prela, E. P. Dellinger, and L. Chan, “Bile duct injury during cholecystectomy and survival in medicare beneficiaries,” JAMA 290(16), 2168–2173 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Serious injuries often require at least 1 surgical repair, and these repairs have variable long-term outcomes, e.g. CBD injury may even cause end-stage liver disease and necessitate liver transplantation [23

23. E. de Santibañes, V. Ardiles, A. Gadano, M. Palavecino, J. Pekolj, and M. Ciardullo, “Liver transplantation: the last measure in the treatment of bile duct injuries,” World J. Surg. 32(8), 1714–1721 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,24

24. E. de Santibañes, J. Pekolj, L. McCormack, J. Nefa, J. Mattera, J. Sívori, C. Bonofiglio, A. Gadano, and M. Ciardullo, “Liver transplantation for the sequelae of intra-operative bile duct injury,” HPB (Oxford) 4(3), 111–115 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In avoiding bile duct injury, intraoperative cholangiogram (IOC) during LC, a radiologic contrast-based examination of the bile duct, is commonly used as a system-level approach to reduce the incidence [33

33. P. Sanjay, C. Kulli, F. M. Polignano, and I. S. Tait, “Optimal surgical technique, use of intra-operative cholangiography (IOC), and management of acute gallbladder disease: the results of a nation-wide survey in the UK and Ireland,” Ann. R. Coll. Surg. Engl. 92(4), 302–306 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

38

38. N. J. Soper and L. M. Brunt, “The case for routine operative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Surg. Clin. North Am. 74(4), 953–959 (1994). [PubMed]

]. By using IOC as a road map of the biliary system, the surgeon can theoretically confirm the adequacy of the operative dissection, clarify assumptions made about the anatomy, and identify the location of the CBD before division of any biliary structures that could potentially help avoid major injury. However, when the cystic duct partially or completely hidden from the view by the infundibulum (hidden cystic duct), ultra-shorten and barely or completely disappeared cystic duct had been encountered, in such situations IOC examination itself could be the cause of CBD injury. Suzuki et al. had reported 11.1% of 244 consecutive LC cases having no cystic artery in Calot's triangle [39

39. M. Suzuki, S. Akaishi, T. Rikiyama, T. Naitoh, M. M. Rahman, and S. Matsuno, “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Calot’s triangle, and variations in cystic arterial supply,” Surg. Endosc. 14(2), 141–144 (2000). [PubMed]

]. In our data, absent cystic artery was about 20% and 50% in overall and Calot fibrosis groups, respectively, which rendered the critical view of safety checking impossible [6

6. S. M. Strasberg, M. Hertl, and N. J. Soper, “An analysis of the problem of biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 180(1), 101–125 (1995). [PubMed]

,40

40. A. R. Wijsmuller, M. Leegwater, L. Tseng, H. J. Smaal, G. J. Kleinrensink, and J. F. Lange, “Optimizing the critical view of safety in laparoscopic cholecystectomy by clipping and transecting the cystic artery before the cystic duct,” Br. J. Surg. 94(4), 473–474 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

42

42. S. M. Strasberg, “Avoidance of biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Surg. 9(5), 543–547 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Transcystic cholangiography and intraoperative fluorescence cholangiography are currently implemented in LC [43

43. H. Tokumura, A. Umezawa, H. Cao, N. Sakamoto, Y. Imaoka, A. Ouchi, and K. Yamamoto, “Laparoscopic management of common bile duct stones: transcystic approach and choledochotomy,” J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Surg. 9(2), 206–212 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

46

46. T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography using indocyanine green for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an initial experience,” Arch. Surg. 144(4), 381–382 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]; however, our findings indicates that a transcystic or transpapilla CBD illuminating device can be a much better alternative approach to prevent the tragedy of iatrogenic CBD injury.

2. Materials and methods

3. Results and discussion

In these six porcine experimental trials, the CBDs were successfully illuminated and thus can be clearly visualized and differentiated from surrounding anatomy through the developed choledochoilluminating device. The time required for the experimental trial ranged from 15 to 50 min with a median time of 30 min. No complications occurred in our cases. Initially, a plastic optical fiber without picosecond laser-fabricated light emission windows and not encapsulated inside an ENBD tube was introduced into the duodenal papilla and entering the CBD, as shown in Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) A common plastic optical fiber without laser-fabricated microstructures and not encapsulated inside an ENBD tube was inserted into the papilla. The measured optical power was 6.9 W/cm2. (b) A plastic optical fiber with laser-fabricated microstructure of light-emission windows but not encapsulated inside an ENBD catheter was passing through the duodenal papilla and entering the CBD. The green emission from microstructure windows of optical fiber clearly illuminates the entire section of CBD under room light. The measured optical power was 42.1 W/cm2. (c) The same optical fiber and optical power in (b) brightened the CBD in the dark.
. Cautious introduction of optical fiber is necessary. The movement of fiber must be slow and soft, otherwise the tissue and duct wall will be injured by the fiber. The illumination mechanism is achieved by the optical fiber microstructures fabricated on the plastic optical fiber where the guided laser light can scatter from the fiber core and transmit through the ductal and surrounding tissue of CBD making the whole segment of buried CBD visible to human eyes. The length, width, depth, and pitch of fabricated light emission windows on the optical fiber have been optimized to achieve the maximum light flux can scatter out from the fiber core but not breaking the optical fiber as it is inserted into the ENBD catheter. The measured illumination optical intensity was about 6.9 W/cm2. It's seen that the CBD was indicated and visualized by the assistance of green optical fiber (as the indication by white arrow). Here, the introduction of 532-nm laser illumination was adopted instead of infrared (IR) lasers since human eyes are much more sensitive to green light and the sensitivity peak is at 555 nm [47

47. G. Elert, ed., “Wavelength of maximum human visual sensitivity,” http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2007/SusanZhao.shtml.

]. Thus, surgeons can instantly identify the anatomical position of CBD during surgery to avoid the mistakenly cutting. Infrared light has deeper penetration depth, but it is almost invisible to human eyes. Surgeons must use IR viewer, IR camera, or IR photodetector to observe it. In this study, we hope the surgeons can directly see the indication light without the help of any excess instruments. Like the pilot, the green light guides surgeons not to do the misjudged cutting of CBD. For the safety issue of introduction, the optical fiber incorporated with ENBD tube was considered. The ENBD tube also enables the possibility of combining multiple functions inside a single tube due to three separate channels of its drainage catheter, e.g. biliary drainage is considered. However, with the cooperation of ENBD tube, the light illumination from optical fiber should be enhanced because the illuminating light has to pass through the wall of hollow cannula. The increased optical path will weaken the transmitted optical intensity and make fiber itself dim in visibility. Hence, the optical fiber with laser-fabricated microstructure windows on the cladding portion was used to illuminate the CBD. Figures 2(b) and 2(c) exhibit the corresponding pictures of CBD illumination. The CBD can be easily visualized and indicated no matter under room light or in the dark condition by the green laser light from fiber (as the indication by yellow arrow). The measured optical intensity was 42.1 W/cm2.

Figures 3(a)
Fig. 3 Relative intensity analysis by the image processing. The plastic optical fiber with laser-fabricated microstructure of light-emission windows but not encapsulated inside an ENBD catheter was passing through the duodenal papilla and entering the CBD. The laser power was (a) 3, (b) 13.7, (c) 27.5, and (d) 41.1 W/cm2, respectively. (e) shows the quantitative comparison results of the relative intensity of visible green light with respect to different introduced laser power. Insets show the transformed light intensity distribution images as the white dot-line square regions marked in (a)­(d).
3(d) show the images of introducing a plastic optical fiber with laser-fabricated microstructure of light-emission windows but not encapsulated inside an ENBD catheter through the papilla into the CBD with the laser power of 3, 13.7, 27.5, and 41.1 W/cm2, respectively. The regional visible green light intensity of CBD images is quantitatively analyzed by individually normalizing the light intensity of CBD region (blue dot-line region) of Figs. 3(b), 3(c), and 3(d) to that of Fig. 3(a). The transformed light intensity distribution images are exhibited in the insets of Fig. 3(e). The resultant relative intensity displays an exponential increase with respect to the increment of laser power as shown in Fig. 3(e). Since the introduced laser power of 41.1 W/cm2 can light the whole CBD segment (Fig. 3(d)), we choose this laser power for the subsequent light scattering illumination of CBD by using the fiber-optic ENBD catheter.

Figure 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) A compact choledochoilluminating catheter was passing through the papilla (as the indication of white arrow) entering the CBD. (b) An optical fiber with laser-fabricated microstructure of light-emission windows encapsulated inside an ENBD catheter was placed in the CBD. The green illumination clearly indicates the CBD under room light (as the indication of yellow arrow). The measured optical power was 10.8 W/cm2.
shows the image of introducing a fiber-encapsulated ENBD catheter through the papilla into the CBD. The image of direct CBD illumination by using the compact choledochoilluminating catheter is exhibited in Fig. 4(b). It's obvious that the CBD was easily identified and indicated. The measured optical intensity was 10.8 W/cm2. To test the optical damage of CBD tissue induced by long-time illumination, the choledochoilluminating device was placed inside CBD up to 4 hours. After sustained 4-hour 10.8 W/cm2 irradiance, the tissue was taken out for pathologic section examination. Examination results show no abnormal influence from 4-hour illumination via the introduced green laser light as compared with nonirradiated tissue. Moreover, these swine have survived until now.

The illumination of CBD is not absolutely necessary. However, during LC, when difficult identification of the CBD is encountered or dangerously CBD is recognized by the surgeon before injuring the CBD, an intraoperative insertion of this illuminating unit into the CBD can be performed either by endoscopic retrograde insertion through the papilla of Vater or direct insertion through inner opening of the cystic duct by opening the infundibulum of gallbladder. The advantage of current approach is much safer and more convenient for the identification of CBD during surgery than the fluorescence cholangiography and conventional intraoperative cholangiography without the risk of injecting potential toxic photon sensitive reagents and the radiation exposure of tissue. In addition, the incident laser power of the device is adjustable to satisfy the visibility to surgeon eyes to rapidly locate the precise position of buried CBD.

4. Conclusion

The CBD was successfully identified using the choledochoilluminating device during laparotomy. To the best of our knowledge, the CBD illumination laser catheter is the first report to be applied on LC in an effort to prevent CBD injury. The controlled optical intensity is sufficiently bright to identify the CBD easily by human eyes. This technique is a simple, effective, and safe adjunct method to strengthen the correct identification of CBD during LC. Therefore, it can play a useful role in lowering and preventing the occurrence of iatrogenic CBD injury, especially for clarifying uncertain anatomy in selected cases.

Acknowledgment

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the National Science Council of Taiwan under the contract NSC100-2622-E-006-039-CC3.

References and links

1.

M. C. Richardson, G. Bell, and G. M. FullartonM. C. RichardsonG. BellG. M. FullartonWest of Scotland Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Audit Group, “Incidence and nature of bile duct injuries following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an audit of 5913 cases,” Br. J. Surg. 83(10), 1356–1360 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

D. R. Fletcher, M. S. T. Hobbs, P. Tan, L. J. Valinsky, R. L. Hockey, T. J. Pikora, M. W. Knuiman, H. J. Sheiner, and A. Edis, “Complications of cholecystectomy: risks of the laparoscopic approach and protective effects of operative cholangiography: a population-based study,” Ann. Surg. 229(4), 449–457 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

P. R. Savassi-Rocha, S. R. Almeida, M. D. Sanches, M. A. C. Andrade, J. T. Frerreira, M. T. C. Diniz, and A. L. S. Rocha, “Iatrogenic bile duct injuries,” Surg. Endosc. 17(9), 1356–1361 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

B. V. MacFadyen Jr, R. Vecchio, A. E. Ricardo, and C. R. Mathis, “Bile duct injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The United States experience,” Surg. Endosc. 12(4), 315–321 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

J. J. Roslyn, G. S. Binns, E. F. X. Hughes, K. Saunders-Kirkwood, M. J. Zinner, and J. A. Cates, “Open cholecystectomy. A contemporary analysis of 42,474 patients,” Ann. Surg. 218(2), 129–137 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

S. M. Strasberg, M. Hertl, and N. J. Soper, “An analysis of the problem of biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 180(1), 101–125 (1995). [PubMed]

7.

D. C. Wherry, M. R. Marohn, M. P. Malanoski, S. P. Hetz, and N. M. Rich, “An external audit of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the steady state performed in medical treatment facilities of the Department of Defense,” Ann. Surg. 224(2), 145–154 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

J. A. Windsor and J. Pong, “Laparoscopic biliary injury: more than a learning curve problem,” Aust. N. Z. J. Surg. 68(3), 186–189 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

S. Adamsen, O. H. Hansen, P. Funch-Jensen, S. Schulze, J. G. Stage, and P. Wara, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective nationwide series,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 184(6), 571–578 (1997). [PubMed]

10.

D. R. Flum, A. Cheadle, C. Prela, E. P. Dellinger, and L. Chan, “Bile duct injury during cholecystectomy and survival in medicare beneficiaries,” JAMA 290(16), 2168–2173 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

E. C. H. Lai and W. Y. Lau, “Mirizzi syndrome: history, present and future development,” ANZ J. Surg. 76(4), 251–257 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

N. N. Massarweh, A. Devlin, R. G. Symons, J. A. Broeckel Elrod, and D. R. Flum, “Risk tolerance and bile duct injury: surgeon characteristics, risk-taking preference, and common bile duct injuries,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 209(1), 17–24 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

S. A. Ahrendt and H. A. Pitt, “Surgical therapy of iatrogenic lesions of biliary tract,” World J. Surg. 25(10), 1360–1365 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

J.-F. Gigot, J. Etienne, R. Aerts, E. Wibin, B. Dallemagne, F. Deweer, D. Fortunati, M. Legrand, L. Vereecken, J.-M. Doumont, P. Van Reepinghen, and C. Beguin, “The dramatic reality of biliary tract injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. an anonymous multicenter Belgian survey of 65 patients,” Surg. Endosc. 11(12), 1171–1178 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

J. Calvete, L. Sabater, B. Camps, A. Verdú, A. Gomez-Portilla, J. Martín, M. A. Torrico, B. Flor, N. Cassinello, and S. Lledó, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: myth or reality of the learning curve?” Surg. Endosc. 14(7), 608–611 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

B. J. Carroll, M. Birth, and E. H. Phillips, “Common bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy that result in litigation,” Surg. Endosc. 12(4), 310–314 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

D. R. Flum, E. P. Dellinger, A. Cheadle, L. Chan, and T. Koepsell, “Intraoperative cholangiography and risk of common bile duct injury during cholecystectomy,” JAMA 289(13), 1639–1644 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

D. R. Flum, T. Koepsell, P. Heagerty, M. Sinanan, and E. P. Dellinger, “Common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the use of intraoperative cholangiography: adverse outcome or preventable error?” Arch. Surg. 136(11), 1287–1292 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

G. B. Melton, K. D. Lillemoe, J. L. Cameron, P. A. Sauter, J. Coleman, and C. J. Yeo, “Major bile duct injuries associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy: effect of surgical repair on quality of life,” Ann. Surg. 235(6), 888–895 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

D. Boerma, E. A. J. Rauws, Y. C. A. Keulemans, J. J. G. H. Bergman, H. Obertop, K. Huibregtse, and D. J. Gouma, “Impaired quality of life 5 years after bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective analysis,” Ann. Surg. 234(6), 750–757 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

D. E. Moore, I. D. Feurer, M. D. Holzman, L. J. Wudel, C. Strickland, D. L. Gorden, R. Chari, J. K. Wright, and C. W. Pinson, “Long-term detrimental effect of bile duct injury on health-related quality of life,” Arch. Surg. 139(5), 476–482 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

W. C. Chapman, A. Halevy, L. H. Blumgart, and I. S. Benjamin, “Postcholecystectomy bile duct strictures. Management and outcome in 130 patients,” Arch. Surg. 130(6), 597–604 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

E. de Santibañes, V. Ardiles, A. Gadano, M. Palavecino, J. Pekolj, and M. Ciardullo, “Liver transplantation: the last measure in the treatment of bile duct injuries,” World J. Surg. 32(8), 1714–1721 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

E. de Santibañes, J. Pekolj, L. McCormack, J. Nefa, J. Mattera, J. Sívori, C. Bonofiglio, A. Gadano, and M. Ciardullo, “Liver transplantation for the sequelae of intra-operative bile duct injury,” HPB (Oxford) 4(3), 111–115 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

S. B. Archer, D. W. Brown, C. D. Smith, G. D. Branum, and J. G. Hunter, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: results of a national survey,” Ann. Surg. 234(4), 549–559 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

L. Stewart and L. W. Way, “Bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Factors that influence the results of treatment,” Arch. Surg. 130(10), 1123–1128, discussion 1129 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

A. M. Davidoff, T. N. Pappas, E. A. Murray, D. J. Hilleren, R. D. Johnson, M. E. Baker, G. E. Newman, P. B. Cotton, and W. C. Meyers, “Mechanisms of major biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Ann. Surg. 215(3), 196–202 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

V. Mahatharadol, “Bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an audit of 1522 cases,” Hepatogastroenterology 51(55), 12–14 (2004). [PubMed]

29.

J. R. Francoeur, K. Wiseman, A. K. Buczkowski, S. W. Chung, and C. H. Scudamore, “Surgeons’ anonymous response after bile duct injury during cholecystectomy,” Am. J. Surg. 185(5), 468–475 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

J. Bingener-Casey, M. L. Richards, W. E. Strodel, W. H. Schwesinger, and K. R. Sirinek, “Reasons for conversion from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy: a 10-year review,” J. Gastrointest. Surg. 6(6), 800–805 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

K. A. Kern, “Medicolegal analysis of bile duct injury during open cholecystectomy and abdominal surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 168(3), 217–222 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

B. Alkhaffaf and B. Decadt, “15 years of litigation following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in England,” Ann. Surg. 251(4), 682–685 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

P. Sanjay, C. Kulli, F. M. Polignano, and I. S. Tait, “Optimal surgical technique, use of intra-operative cholangiography (IOC), and management of acute gallbladder disease: the results of a nation-wide survey in the UK and Ireland,” Ann. R. Coll. Surg. Engl. 92(4), 302–306 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

D. E. Wenner, P. Whitwam, D. Turner, A. Chadha, and J. Degani, “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and management of biliary tract stones in a freestanding ambulatory surgery center,” JSLS 10(1), 47–51 (2006). [PubMed]

35.

S. Rojas-Ortega, D. Arizpe-Bravo, E. R. Marín López, R. Cesin-Sánchez, G. R. S. Roman, and C. Gómez, “Transcystic common bile duct exploration in the management of patients with choledocholithiasis,” J. Gastrointest. Surg. 7(4), 492–496 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

36.

E. Kullman, K. Borch, E. Lindström, J. Svanvik, and B. Anderberg, “Management of bile duct stones in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: appraisal of routine operative cholangiography and endoscopic treatment,” Eur. J. Surg. 162(11), 873–880 (1996). [PubMed]

37.

A. Nickkholgh, S. Soltaniyekta, and H. Kalbasi, “Routine versus selective intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a survey of 2,130 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Surg. Endosc. 20(6), 868–874 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

38.

N. J. Soper and L. M. Brunt, “The case for routine operative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Surg. Clin. North Am. 74(4), 953–959 (1994). [PubMed]

39.

M. Suzuki, S. Akaishi, T. Rikiyama, T. Naitoh, M. M. Rahman, and S. Matsuno, “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Calot’s triangle, and variations in cystic arterial supply,” Surg. Endosc. 14(2), 141–144 (2000). [PubMed]

40.

A. R. Wijsmuller, M. Leegwater, L. Tseng, H. J. Smaal, G. J. Kleinrensink, and J. F. Lange, “Optimizing the critical view of safety in laparoscopic cholecystectomy by clipping and transecting the cystic artery before the cystic duct,” Br. J. Surg. 94(4), 473–474 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

41.

G. Honda, T. Iwanaga, M. Kurata, F. Watanabe, H. Satoh, and K. Iwasaki, “The critical view of safety in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is optimized by exposing the inner layer of the subserosal layer,” J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Surg. 16(4), 445–449 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

42.

S. M. Strasberg, “Avoidance of biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Surg. 9(5), 543–547 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

43.

H. Tokumura, A. Umezawa, H. Cao, N. Sakamoto, Y. Imaoka, A. Ouchi, and K. Yamamoto, “Laparoscopic management of common bile duct stones: transcystic approach and choledochotomy,” J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Surg. 9(2), 206–212 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

44.

J. L. Figueiredo, C. Siegel, M. Nahrendorf, and R. Weissleder, “Intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIRFC) in mouse models of bile duct injury,” World J. Surg. 34(2), 336–343 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

45.

T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, M. Ijichi, J. Kaneko, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography illuminating the biliary tree during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Br. J. Surg. 97(9), 1369–1377 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

46.

T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography using indocyanine green for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an initial experience,” Arch. Surg. 144(4), 381–382 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

47.

G. Elert, ed., “Wavelength of maximum human visual sensitivity,” http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2007/SusanZhao.shtml.

OCIS Codes
(170.1610) Medical optics and biotechnology : Clinical applications
(170.2680) Medical optics and biotechnology : Gastrointestinal
(170.2945) Medical optics and biotechnology : Illumination design

ToC Category:
Endoscopes, Catheters and Micro-Optics

History
Original Manuscript: May 24, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: July 23, 2012
Published: July 31, 2012

Citation
Hsing-Ying Lin, Chen-Han Huang, Shannon Shy, Yu-Chung Chang, Hsiang-Chen Chui, Tsung-Chih Yu, and Chih-Han Chang, "Visibility enhancement of common bile duct for laparoscopic cholecystectomy by vivid fiber-optic indication: a porcine experiment trial," Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1964-1971 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/boe/abstract.cfm?URI=boe-3-9-1964


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. M. C. Richardson, G. Bell, G. M. Fullarton, and West of Scotland Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Audit Group, “Incidence and nature of bile duct injuries following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an audit of 5913 cases,” Br. J. Surg.83(10), 1356–1360 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. R. Fletcher, M. S. T. Hobbs, P. Tan, L. J. Valinsky, R. L. Hockey, T. J. Pikora, M. W. Knuiman, H. J. Sheiner, and A. Edis, “Complications of cholecystectomy: risks of the laparoscopic approach and protective effects of operative cholangiography: a population-based study,” Ann. Surg.229(4), 449–457 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. R. Savassi-Rocha, S. R. Almeida, M. D. Sanches, M. A. C. Andrade, J. T. Frerreira, M. T. C. Diniz, and A. L. S. Rocha, “Iatrogenic bile duct injuries,” Surg. Endosc.17(9), 1356–1361 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. V. MacFadyen, R. Vecchio, A. E. Ricardo, and C. R. Mathis, “Bile duct injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The United States experience,” Surg. Endosc.12(4), 315–321 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. J. Roslyn, G. S. Binns, E. F. X. Hughes, K. Saunders-Kirkwood, M. J. Zinner, and J. A. Cates, “Open cholecystectomy. A contemporary analysis of 42,474 patients,” Ann. Surg.218(2), 129–137 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. M. Strasberg, M. Hertl, and N. J. Soper, “An analysis of the problem of biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” J. Am. Coll. Surg.180(1), 101–125 (1995). [PubMed]
  7. D. C. Wherry, M. R. Marohn, M. P. Malanoski, S. P. Hetz, and N. M. Rich, “An external audit of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the steady state performed in medical treatment facilities of the Department of Defense,” Ann. Surg.224(2), 145–154 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. A. Windsor and J. Pong, “Laparoscopic biliary injury: more than a learning curve problem,” Aust. N. Z. J. Surg.68(3), 186–189 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Adamsen, O. H. Hansen, P. Funch-Jensen, S. Schulze, J. G. Stage, and P. Wara, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective nationwide series,” J. Am. Coll. Surg.184(6), 571–578 (1997). [PubMed]
  10. D. R. Flum, A. Cheadle, C. Prela, E. P. Dellinger, and L. Chan, “Bile duct injury during cholecystectomy and survival in medicare beneficiaries,” JAMA290(16), 2168–2173 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. C. H. Lai and W. Y. Lau, “Mirizzi syndrome: history, present and future development,” ANZ J. Surg.76(4), 251–257 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. N. Massarweh, A. Devlin, R. G. Symons, J. A. Broeckel Elrod, and D. R. Flum, “Risk tolerance and bile duct injury: surgeon characteristics, risk-taking preference, and common bile duct injuries,” J. Am. Coll. Surg.209(1), 17–24 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. A. Ahrendt and H. A. Pitt, “Surgical therapy of iatrogenic lesions of biliary tract,” World J. Surg.25(10), 1360–1365 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J.-F. Gigot, J. Etienne, R. Aerts, E. Wibin, B. Dallemagne, F. Deweer, D. Fortunati, M. Legrand, L. Vereecken, J.-M. Doumont, P. Van Reepinghen, and C. Beguin, “The dramatic reality of biliary tract injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. an anonymous multicenter Belgian survey of 65 patients,” Surg. Endosc.11(12), 1171–1178 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Calvete, L. Sabater, B. Camps, A. Verdú, A. Gomez-Portilla, J. Martín, M. A. Torrico, B. Flor, N. Cassinello, and S. Lledó, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: myth or reality of the learning curve?” Surg. Endosc.14(7), 608–611 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. J. Carroll, M. Birth, and E. H. Phillips, “Common bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy that result in litigation,” Surg. Endosc.12(4), 310–314 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. R. Flum, E. P. Dellinger, A. Cheadle, L. Chan, and T. Koepsell, “Intraoperative cholangiography and risk of common bile duct injury during cholecystectomy,” JAMA289(13), 1639–1644 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. R. Flum, T. Koepsell, P. Heagerty, M. Sinanan, and E. P. Dellinger, “Common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the use of intraoperative cholangiography: adverse outcome or preventable error?” Arch. Surg.136(11), 1287–1292 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. B. Melton, K. D. Lillemoe, J. L. Cameron, P. A. Sauter, J. Coleman, and C. J. Yeo, “Major bile duct injuries associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy: effect of surgical repair on quality of life,” Ann. Surg.235(6), 888–895 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. Boerma, E. A. J. Rauws, Y. C. A. Keulemans, J. J. G. H. Bergman, H. Obertop, K. Huibregtse, and D. J. Gouma, “Impaired quality of life 5 years after bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective analysis,” Ann. Surg.234(6), 750–757 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D. E. Moore, I. D. Feurer, M. D. Holzman, L. J. Wudel, C. Strickland, D. L. Gorden, R. Chari, J. K. Wright, and C. W. Pinson, “Long-term detrimental effect of bile duct injury on health-related quality of life,” Arch. Surg.139(5), 476–482 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. W. C. Chapman, A. Halevy, L. H. Blumgart, and I. S. Benjamin, “Postcholecystectomy bile duct strictures. Management and outcome in 130 patients,” Arch. Surg.130(6), 597–604 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. E. de Santibañes, V. Ardiles, A. Gadano, M. Palavecino, J. Pekolj, and M. Ciardullo, “Liver transplantation: the last measure in the treatment of bile duct injuries,” World J. Surg.32(8), 1714–1721 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. E. de Santibañes, J. Pekolj, L. McCormack, J. Nefa, J. Mattera, J. Sívori, C. Bonofiglio, A. Gadano, and M. Ciardullo, “Liver transplantation for the sequelae of intra-operative bile duct injury,” HPB (Oxford)4(3), 111–115 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. B. Archer, D. W. Brown, C. D. Smith, G. D. Branum, and J. G. Hunter, “Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: results of a national survey,” Ann. Surg.234(4), 549–559 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. L. Stewart and L. W. Way, “Bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Factors that influence the results of treatment,” Arch. Surg.130(10), 1123–1128, discussion 1129 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. M. Davidoff, T. N. Pappas, E. A. Murray, D. J. Hilleren, R. D. Johnson, M. E. Baker, G. E. Newman, P. B. Cotton, and W. C. Meyers, “Mechanisms of major biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Ann. Surg.215(3), 196–202 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. V. Mahatharadol, “Bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an audit of 1522 cases,” Hepatogastroenterology51(55), 12–14 (2004). [PubMed]
  29. J. R. Francoeur, K. Wiseman, A. K. Buczkowski, S. W. Chung, and C. H. Scudamore, “Surgeons’ anonymous response after bile duct injury during cholecystectomy,” Am. J. Surg.185(5), 468–475 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. Bingener-Casey, M. L. Richards, W. E. Strodel, W. H. Schwesinger, and K. R. Sirinek, “Reasons for conversion from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy: a 10-year review,” J. Gastrointest. Surg.6(6), 800–805 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. K. A. Kern, “Medicolegal analysis of bile duct injury during open cholecystectomy and abdominal surgery,” Am. J. Surg.168(3), 217–222 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. B. Alkhaffaf and B. Decadt, “15 years of litigation following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in England,” Ann. Surg.251(4), 682–685 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. P. Sanjay, C. Kulli, F. M. Polignano, and I. S. Tait, “Optimal surgical technique, use of intra-operative cholangiography (IOC), and management of acute gallbladder disease: the results of a nation-wide survey in the UK and Ireland,” Ann. R. Coll. Surg. Engl.92(4), 302–306 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. D. E. Wenner, P. Whitwam, D. Turner, A. Chadha, and J. Degani, “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and management of biliary tract stones in a freestanding ambulatory surgery center,” JSLS10(1), 47–51 (2006). [PubMed]
  35. S. Rojas-Ortega, D. Arizpe-Bravo, E. R. Marín López, R. Cesin-Sánchez, G. R. S. Roman, and C. Gómez, “Transcystic common bile duct exploration in the management of patients with choledocholithiasis,” J. Gastrointest. Surg.7(4), 492–496 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. E. Kullman, K. Borch, E. Lindström, J. Svanvik, and B. Anderberg, “Management of bile duct stones in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: appraisal of routine operative cholangiography and endoscopic treatment,” Eur. J. Surg.162(11), 873–880 (1996). [PubMed]
  37. A. Nickkholgh, S. Soltaniyekta, and H. Kalbasi, “Routine versus selective intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a survey of 2,130 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Surg. Endosc.20(6), 868–874 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. N. J. Soper and L. M. Brunt, “The case for routine operative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Surg. Clin. North Am.74(4), 953–959 (1994). [PubMed]
  39. M. Suzuki, S. Akaishi, T. Rikiyama, T. Naitoh, M. M. Rahman, and S. Matsuno, “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Calot’s triangle, and variations in cystic arterial supply,” Surg. Endosc.14(2), 141–144 (2000). [PubMed]
  40. A. R. Wijsmuller, M. Leegwater, L. Tseng, H. J. Smaal, G. J. Kleinrensink, and J. F. Lange, “Optimizing the critical view of safety in laparoscopic cholecystectomy by clipping and transecting the cystic artery before the cystic duct,” Br. J. Surg.94(4), 473–474 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. G. Honda, T. Iwanaga, M. Kurata, F. Watanabe, H. Satoh, and K. Iwasaki, “The critical view of safety in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is optimized by exposing the inner layer of the subserosal layer,” J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Surg.16(4), 445–449 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. S. M. Strasberg, “Avoidance of biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Surg.9(5), 543–547 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. H. Tokumura, A. Umezawa, H. Cao, N. Sakamoto, Y. Imaoka, A. Ouchi, and K. Yamamoto, “Laparoscopic management of common bile duct stones: transcystic approach and choledochotomy,” J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Surg.9(2), 206–212 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. J. L. Figueiredo, C. Siegel, M. Nahrendorf, and R. Weissleder, “Intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIRFC) in mouse models of bile duct injury,” World J. Surg.34(2), 336–343 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, M. Ijichi, J. Kaneko, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography illuminating the biliary tree during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Br. J. Surg.97(9), 1369–1377 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography using indocyanine green for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an initial experience,” Arch. Surg.144(4), 381–382 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. G. Elert, ed., “Wavelength of maximum human visual sensitivity,” http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2007/SusanZhao.shtml .

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited