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Biomedical Optics Express

Biomedical Optics Express

  • Editor: Joseph A. Izatt
  • Vol. 5, Iss. 3 — Mar. 1, 2014
  • pp: 932–943
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Development of a high power supercontinuum source in the 1.7 μm wavelength region for highly penetrative ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography

H. Kawagoe, S. Ishida, M. Aramaki, Y. Sakakibara, E. Omoda, H. Kataura, and N. Nishizawa  »View Author Affiliations


Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 5, Issue 3, pp. 932-943 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.5.000932


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Abstract

We developed a high power supercontinuum source at a center wavelength of 1.7 μm to demonstrate highly penetrative ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT). A single-wall carbon nanotube dispersed in polyimide film was used as a transparent saturable absorber in the cavity configuration and a high-repetition-rate ultrashort-pulse fiber laser was realized. The developed SC source had an output power of 60 mW, a bandwidth of 242 nm full-width at half maximum, and a repetition rate of 110 MHz. The average power and repetition rate were approximately twice as large as those of our previous SC source [20]. Using the developed SC source, UHR-OCT imaging was demonstrated. A sensitivity of 105 dB and an axial resolution of 3.2 μm in biological tissue were achieved. We compared the UHR-OCT images of some biological tissue samples measured with the developed SC source, the previous one, and one operating in the 1.3 μm wavelength region. We confirmed that the developed SC source had improved sensitivity and penetration depth for low-water-absorption samples.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technique used for micrometer-scale cross-sectional imaging of biological tissue and materials [1

1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3

3. A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051403 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It is an essential imaging technique in ophthalmology, and has also been studied recently in various other clinical, industrial, and research applications [4

4. R. A. Costa, M. Skaf, L. A. S. Melo Jr, D. Calucci, J. A. Cardillo, J. C. Castro, D. Huang, and M. Wojtkowski, “Retinal assessment using optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 25(3), 325–353 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11

11. M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Advances in optical coherence tomography imaging for dermatology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 123(3), 458–463 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For such applications, it is necessary to increase both the penetration depth and resolution. An axial resolution of less than 5 μm can be achieved by using a broad spectral light source such as superluminescent diodes (SLDs), ultrashort pulse solid state lasers, and supercontinuum (SC) sources. However, the average output power of SLDs is limited to a few tens of mW, and the spectral shape is not ideal and it needs shaping to achieve the ideal interference signal. For the ultrashort pulse solid state lasers, the environmental stability is weak. The optical spectrum cannot be controlled and the available wavelength is limited by the laser source. For the SC sources, we can demonstrate high power, wideband light source at various wavelength regions.

The penetration depth of OCT is fundamentally limited by the attenuation of ballistic light propagation via scattering and absorption. Besides the scattering and absorption losses, the phenomenon of multiple scattering also makes it difficult to achieve meaningful structural information at deeper penetration depths [12

12. M. J. Yadlowsky, J. M. Schmitt, and R. F. Bonner, “Multiple scattering in optical coherence microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34(25), 5699–5707 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Because the optical properties of tissue have a strong dependence on wavelength, it is necessary to choose the proper wavelength to achieve a large penetration depth. A clear improvement in penetration depth was demonstrated by using a wavelength of 1.3 μm versus 0.8 μm [7

7. B. W. Colston Jr, M. J. Everett, L. B. Da Silva, L. L. Otis, P. Stroeve, and H. Nathel, “Imaging of hard- and soft-tissue structure in the oral cavity by optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 37(16), 3582–3585 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,13

13. J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39(10), 1705–1720 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16

16. A. Aguirre, N. Nishizawa, J. G. Fujimoto, W. Seitz, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Continuum generation in a novel photonic crystal fiber for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography at 800 nm and 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1145–1160 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. OCT systems operating at 1.55 μm and 1.8 μm have shown comparable penetration depths to that of 1.3 μm systems [17

17. B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55 μm and 1.81 μm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 76–79 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,18

18. N. Nishizawa, Y. Chen, P. Hsiung, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Real-time, ultrahigh-resolution, optical coherence tomography with an all-fiber, femtosecond fiber laser continuum at 1.5 microm,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2846–2848 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Recently, OCT systems operating in long-wavelength regions at 1.7 μm and at 1.3 μm were compared for imaging skin, 10% intralipid solution, and rubber [19

19. U. Sharma, E. W. Chang, and S. H. Yun, “Long-wavelength optical coherence tomography at 1.7 microm for enhanced imaging depth,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19712–19723 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Ishida et al. demonstrated highly penetrative UHR-OCT imaging for the first time by using a fiber-based Gaussian-like SC at a center wavelength of 1.7 μm and confirmed the wavelength dependence of the imaging contrast and penetration depth in the 0.8–1.7 μm wavelength region [20

20. S. Ishida, N. Nishizawa, T. Ohta, and K. Itoh, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography in 1.7 μm region with fiber laser supercontinuum in low-water-absorption samples,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052501 (2011). [CrossRef]

22

22. V. M. Kodach, J. Kalkman, D. J. Faber, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative comparison of the OCT imaging depth at 1300 nm and 1600 nm,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 176–185 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Increased penetration depth was achieved due to lower scattering in tissue at longer wavelengths. In OCT, the sensitivity is proportional to the signal power. Thus, for highly sensitive measurement, it is important to increase the average power of the SC. In those systems, however, the power of the SC in the 1.7 μm wavelength region was inhibited by large nonlinear effects in fibers. As a result, both the sensitivity and the penetration depth of OCT were limited by the allowable power of the SC. In order to perform OCT imaging with higher sensitivity and deeper penetration, it is important to increase the output power of the SC source in the 1.7 μm wavelength region. Moreover, especially in clinical applications, the optical sources must have very high robustness against disturbances, as well as both short- and long-term stability. Therefore, an almost entirely all-fiber configuration is desirable for the SC source.

In this study, we developed a high-power SC source to demonstrate highly penetrative UHR-OCT in the 1.7 μm wavelength region. We constructed a high-power SC source with a center wavelength of 1.7 μm based on a high-repetition-rate ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) [23

23. N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9429–9435 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,24

24. Y. Senoo, N. Nishizawa, Y. Sakakibara, K. Sumimura, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “Polarization-maintaining, high-energy, wavelength-tunable, Er-doped ultrashort pulse fiber laser using carbon-nanotube polyimide film,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20233–20241 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We compared the imaging contrast and penetration depth of UHR-OCT images obtained using the SC source developed in the present study, a previously developed one, and an SC source operating in the 1.3 μm wavelength region. The developed high-power system showed improved imaging contrast and penetration depth.

2. Experimental setup

2.1. High-power supercontinuum source operating in 1.7 μm wavelength region

Figure 2(a)
Fig. 2 Variations of (a) the output power and the operation mode, and (b) spectral and temporal widths as a function of the pump power.
shows the output power as a function of the pump power. As the pump power was increased, the output power increased linearly, and the oscillation mode shifted from cw lasing to self-Q switching, and then to single-pulse soliton mode-locking operation. The maximum output power was about 40 mW, which, to our knowledge, is the highest reported average power for single-pulse soliton mode-locking operation in SWNT fiber lasers. Figure 2(b) shows the spectral and temporal widths, full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), as a function of the pump power. As the pump power was increased, the spectral width increased and the temporal width decreased monotonically.

Figure 3
Fig. 3 Characteristics of the output pulse of the fiber laser, (a) the optical spectrum and (b) the autocorrelation trace.
shows the optical characteristics of the output ultrashort pulse when the pump power was 210 mW. As shown in Fig. 3(a), the maximum spectral width was 18 nm FWHM. The observed temporal width of the autocorrelation trace was 265 fs, and the corresponding temporal width was 171 fs under the assumption of a sech2 pulse shape. From numerical analysis of the pulse dynamics inside the cavity, we confirmed that, owing to the soliton compression, the pulse width obtained at the output of the fiber laser was almost the shortest one which can be obtained in this laser.

Next, we examined the RF noise of the fiber laser. Figure 4(a)
Fig. 4 Observed RF spectra for (a) single sideband measurement and (b) 0-1.0 GHz region of the developed high repetition rate fiber laser.
shows the result of single-sideband measurement, which is generally used for amplitude noise measurement of mode-locked laser sources. There was no large intensity noise component. Figure 4(b) shows the observed RF spectra of the output pulse train. We used a 30 dB neutral density (ND) filter to avoid saturation of the RF spectrum analyzer. The black line shows the RF spectrum of the output pulse train, and the red line shows the detection system noise measured without a signal. Equally spanned, clean RF spectra were observed. These results indicated stable mode-locking operation, and we confirmed that the developed high-repetition-rate fiber laser had low noise.

Figure 6
Fig. 6 Optical spectra of (a) the Raman soliton pulse and (b) the high power SC (black line, light source; red one, in front of detector; orange one, in front of detector (enlarged).).
shows the obtained optical spectra of the Raman soliton pulse and the generated SC. The spectral width of the generated SC was 242 nm FWHM, and the corresponding theoretical axial resolution was 5.3 μm in air. Using the high-repetition-rate SWNT fiber laser, excessive nonlinear effects were suppressed, allowing a Gaussian-shaped SC to be generated.

Typically, the commercially available SC source is generated with nsec-psec pulses and the dispersion shifted highly nonlinear fibers. However, the noise level of those SC is generally higher than that of SLD by 20-30 dB. On the other hand, using the fs ultrashort pulse and normal dispersion highly nonlinear fiber, a Gaussian-like shaped, wideband SC with low-noise property can be realized [27

27. N. Nishizawa and J. Takayanagi, “Octave spanning high-quality supercontinuum generation in all fiber system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1786 (2007). [CrossRef]

].

This system consisted almost entirely of all-fiber components and can fit inside a shoe box. The developed SC source showed good long-term stability for 24 hours. The spectral noise was negligibly small during the imaging. Therefore, this light source can be used as a compact, stable, and practical wideband source for OCT.

2.2 UHR-OCT system

2.3 Characteristics of UHR-OCT systems

2.4 Observed samples

We imaged several biological samples with the three UHR-OCT systems mentioned above. The tested samples were a human baby tooth, a human nail, and a pig thyroid gland. A human baby tooth has an enamel layer and a dentine layer. The enamel layer contains about 4% water, and the dentine layer contains about 10% water. We chose a human baby tooth as a sample with low water absorption. A human nail mainly consists of the epidermis, dermis, nail plate, and nail bed. The epidermis and dermis contain about 58% water, and the nail plate and nail bed contain about 15%. We chose a human nail as a sample that has both high and low water absorption properties. A pig thyroid gland was chosen as a conventional biological sample with high water-absorption and highly scattering property.

3. Results

3.1 Human baby tooth

3.2 Human nail

3.3 Pig thyroid gland

Figure 12(c) shows a reconstructed 3D image of the pig thyroid gland obtained with the developed SC source. In the 3D image shown in Media 1, the three-dimensional structure of a follicle was observed clearly by using the developed SC source.

4. Conclusion

References and links

1.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

J. M. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1205–1215 (1999). [CrossRef]

3.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051403 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

R. A. Costa, M. Skaf, L. A. S. Melo Jr, D. Calucci, J. A. Cardillo, J. C. Castro, D. Huang, and M. Wojtkowski, “Retinal assessment using optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 25(3), 325–353 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

M. Mujat, R. C. Chan, B. Cense, B. H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9480–9491 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

M. Nishiura, T. Kobayashi, M. Adachi, J. Nakanishi, T. Ueno, Y. Ito, and N. Nishizawa, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography using gaussian-shaped supercontinuum,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(1), 012701 (2010). [CrossRef]

7.

B. W. Colston Jr, M. J. Everett, L. B. Da Silva, L. L. Otis, P. Stroeve, and H. Nathel, “Imaging of hard- and soft-tissue structure in the oral cavity by optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 37(16), 3582–3585 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

L. L. Otis, B. W. Colston Jr, M. J. Everett, and H. Nathel, “Dental optical coherence tomography: a comparison of two in vitro systems,” Dentomaxillofac. Radiol. 29(2), 85–89 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

A. Z. Freitas, D. M. Zezell, N. D. Vieira, A. C. Ribeiro, and A. S. L. Gomes, “Imaging carious human dental tissue with optical coherence tomography,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 024906 (2006). [CrossRef]

10.

G. Isenberg and M. V. Sivak Jr., “Gastrointestinal optical coherence tomography,” Tech. Gastrointest. Endosc. 5(2), 94–101 (2003). [CrossRef]

11.

M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Advances in optical coherence tomography imaging for dermatology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 123(3), 458–463 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

M. J. Yadlowsky, J. M. Schmitt, and R. F. Bonner, “Multiple scattering in optical coherence microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34(25), 5699–5707 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39(10), 1705–1720 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

Y. Pan and D. L. Farkas, “Noninvasive imaging of living human skin with dual-wavelength optical coherence tomography in two and three dimensions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(4), 446–455 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

A. Aguirre, N. Nishizawa, J. G. Fujimoto, W. Seitz, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Continuum generation in a novel photonic crystal fiber for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography at 800 nm and 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1145–1160 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55 μm and 1.81 μm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 76–79 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

N. Nishizawa, Y. Chen, P. Hsiung, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Real-time, ultrahigh-resolution, optical coherence tomography with an all-fiber, femtosecond fiber laser continuum at 1.5 microm,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2846–2848 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

U. Sharma, E. W. Chang, and S. H. Yun, “Long-wavelength optical coherence tomography at 1.7 microm for enhanced imaging depth,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19712–19723 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

S. Ishida, N. Nishizawa, T. Ohta, and K. Itoh, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography in 1.7 μm region with fiber laser supercontinuum in low-water-absorption samples,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052501 (2011). [CrossRef]

21.

S. Ishida and N. Nishizawa, “Quantitative comparison of contrast and imaging depth of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography images in 800-1700 nm wavelength region,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(2), 282–294 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

V. M. Kodach, J. Kalkman, D. J. Faber, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative comparison of the OCT imaging depth at 1300 nm and 1600 nm,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 176–185 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9429–9435 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

Y. Senoo, N. Nishizawa, Y. Sakakibara, K. Sumimura, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “Polarization-maintaining, high-energy, wavelength-tunable, Er-doped ultrashort pulse fiber laser using carbon-nanotube polyimide film,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20233–20241 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

F. M. Mitschke and L. F. Mollenauer, “Discovery of the soliton self-frequency shift,” Opt. Lett. 11(10), 659–661 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

N. Nishizawa and T. Goto, “Compact System of Wavelength-Tunable Femtosecond Soliton Pulse Generation Using Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(3), 325–327 (1999). [CrossRef]

27.

N. Nishizawa and J. Takayanagi, “Octave spanning high-quality supercontinuum generation in all fiber system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1786 (2007). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(110.4500) Imaging systems : Optical coherence tomography
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging

ToC Category:
Optical Coherence Tomography

History
Original Manuscript: December 24, 2013
Revised Manuscript: February 15, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: February 18, 2014
Published: February 26, 2014

Citation
H. Kawagoe, S. Ishida, M. Aramaki, Y. Sakakibara, E. Omoda, H. Kataura, and N. Nishizawa, "Development of a high power supercontinuum source in the 1.7 μm wavelength region for highly penetrative ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 932-943 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/boe/abstract.cfm?URI=boe-5-3-932


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References

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. M. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(4), 1205–1215 (1999). [CrossRef]
  3. A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(5), 051403 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. A. Costa, M. Skaf, L. A. S. Melo, D. Calucci, J. A. Cardillo, J. C. Castro, D. Huang, and M. Wojtkowski, “Retinal assessment using optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res.25(3), 325–353 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Mujat, R. C. Chan, B. Cense, B. H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express13(23), 9480–9491 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Nishiura, T. Kobayashi, M. Adachi, J. Nakanishi, T. Ueno, Y. Ito, and N. Nishizawa, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography using gaussian-shaped supercontinuum,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(1), 012701 (2010). [CrossRef]
  7. B. W. Colston, M. J. Everett, L. B. Da Silva, L. L. Otis, P. Stroeve, and H. Nathel, “Imaging of hard- and soft-tissue structure in the oral cavity by optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt.37(16), 3582–3585 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. L. Otis, B. W. Colston, M. J. Everett, and H. Nathel, “Dental optical coherence tomography: a comparison of two in vitro systems,” Dentomaxillofac. Radiol.29(2), 85–89 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Z. Freitas, D. M. Zezell, N. D. Vieira, A. C. Ribeiro, and A. S. L. Gomes, “Imaging carious human dental tissue with optical coherence tomography,” J. Appl. Phys.99(2), 024906 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. G. Isenberg and M. V. Sivak., “Gastrointestinal optical coherence tomography,” Tech. Gastrointest. Endosc.5(2), 94–101 (2003). [CrossRef]
  11. M. C. Pierce, J. Strasswimmer, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Advances in optical coherence tomography imaging for dermatology,” J. Invest. Dermatol.123(3), 458–463 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. J. Yadlowsky, J. M. Schmitt, and R. F. Bonner, “Multiple scattering in optical coherence microscopy,” Appl. Opt.34(25), 5699–5707 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol.39(10), 1705–1720 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Pan and D. L. Farkas, “Noninvasive imaging of living human skin with dual-wavelength optical coherence tomography in two and three dimensions,” J. Biomed. Opt.3(4), 446–455 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol.119(8), 1179–1185 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Aguirre, N. Nishizawa, J. G. Fujimoto, W. Seitz, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Continuum generation in a novel photonic crystal fiber for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography at 800 nm and 1300 nm,” Opt. Express14(3), 1145–1160 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55 μm and 1.81 μm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources,” J. Biomed. Opt.3(1), 76–79 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. N. Nishizawa, Y. Chen, P. Hsiung, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Real-time, ultrahigh-resolution, optical coherence tomography with an all-fiber, femtosecond fiber laser continuum at 1.5 microm,” Opt. Lett.29(24), 2846–2848 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. U. Sharma, E. W. Chang, and S. H. Yun, “Long-wavelength optical coherence tomography at 1.7 microm for enhanced imaging depth,” Opt. Express16(24), 19712–19723 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Ishida, N. Nishizawa, T. Ohta, and K. Itoh, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography in 1.7 μm region with fiber laser supercontinuum in low-water-absorption samples,” Appl. Phys. Express4(5), 052501 (2011). [CrossRef]
  21. S. Ishida and N. Nishizawa, “Quantitative comparison of contrast and imaging depth of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography images in 800-1700 nm wavelength region,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(2), 282–294 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. V. M. Kodach, J. Kalkman, D. J. Faber, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative comparison of the OCT imaging depth at 1300 nm and 1600 nm,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 176–185 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express16(13), 9429–9435 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Y. Senoo, N. Nishizawa, Y. Sakakibara, K. Sumimura, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “Polarization-maintaining, high-energy, wavelength-tunable, Er-doped ultrashort pulse fiber laser using carbon-nanotube polyimide film,” Opt. Express17(22), 20233–20241 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. F. M. Mitschke and L. F. Mollenauer, “Discovery of the soliton self-frequency shift,” Opt. Lett.11(10), 659–661 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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