OSA's Digital Library

Chinese Optics Letters

Chinese Optics Letters


  • Vol. 6, Iss. 8 — Aug. 10, 2008
  • pp: 603–606

Influence of slant of objective on image formation in optical microscopes

Jiangang Wang and Rainer Koning  »View Author Affiliations

Chinese Optics Letters, Vol. 6, Issue 8, pp. 603-606 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (533 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


A microscope image formation model based on scalar diffraction and Fourier optics has been developed, which takes a slant angle between the optical axis and the observed surface into account. The theoretical investigations of the imaging of line structures using this model show that reflection type microscopes are much stronger influenced by the slant angle than transmission type microscopes. In addition, the slant angle changes the image contrast and the image shape of a line structure, especially its edge. The larger the slant angle, the stronger the decrease of the image contrast, and the less steep the edge slope in both types of microscopes. Furthermore, the larger the numerical aperture of the objective, the less the effect of the slant angle on the line image shape.

© 2008 Chinese Optics Letters

OCIS Codes
(110.2990) Imaging systems : Image formation theory
(120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology
(180.0180) Microscopy : Microscopy

Jiangang Wang and Rainer Koning, "Influence of slant of objective on image formation in optical microscopes," Chin. Opt. Lett. 6, 603-606 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. D. Nyyssonen, Appl. Opt. 16, 2223 (1977).
  2. D. Nyyssonen and R. D. Larrabee, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 92, 187 (1987).
  3. R. Barakat, Opt. Acta 17, 337 (1970).
  4. R. Barakat, Opt. Acta 16, 205 (1969).
  5. D. Nyyssonen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1425 (1982).
  6. E. C. Kintner, Appl. Opt. 17, 2747 (1978).
  7. H. H. Hopkins, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 21, 114 (1977).
  8. H. H. Hopkins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 508 (1957).
  9. C. P. Kirk, "Precision measurement of microscope images" PhD Thesis (University of Leeds, 1985).
  10. C. P. Kirk, Appl. Opt. 26, 3417 (1987).
  11. C.-M. Yuan, "Modeling of optical alignment and metrology in VLSI manufacturing" PhD Thesis (Carnegie-Mellon University, 1989).
  12. C.-M. Yuan and A. J. Strojwas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 778 (1991).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited