OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Display Technology

Journal of Display Technology


  • Vol. 2, Iss. 3 — Sep. 1, 2006
  • pp: 199–216

Head-Worn Displays: A Review

Ozan Cakmakci and Jannick Rolland

Journal of Display Technology, Vol. 2, Issue 3, pp. 199-216 (2006)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1973 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


Head-worn display design is inherently an interdisciplinary subject fusing optical engineering, optical materials, optical coatings, electronics, manufacturing techniques, user interface design, computer science, human perception, and physiology for assessing these displays. This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art in head-worn display design (HWD) and development. This review is focused on the optical engineering aspects, divided into different sections to explore principles and applications. Building on the guiding fundamentals of optical design and engineering, the principles section includes a summary of microdisplay or laser sources, the Lagrange invariant for understanding the trade-offs in optical design of HWDs, modes of image presentation (i.e., monocular, biocular, and stereo) and operational modes such as optical and video see-through. A brief summary of the human visual system pertinent to the design of HWDs is provided. Two optical design forms, namely, pupil forming and non-pupil forming are discussed. We summarize the results from previous design work using aspheric, diffractive, or holographic elements to achieve compact and lightweight systems. The applications section is organized in terms of field of view requirements and presents a reasonable collection of past designs.

© 2006 IEEE

Ozan Cakmakci and Jannick Rolland, "Head-Worn Displays: A Review," J. Display Technol. 2, 199-216 (2006)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset


  1. H. Urey, "Spot size, depth-of-focus, and diffraction ring intensity formulas for truncated Gaussian beams," Appl. Opt. 43, 620-625 (2004).
  2. V. Mahajan, Optical Imaging and Aberrations (SPIE Press, 2001).
  3. R. Draper, M. Wood, B. Radmard, K. Mahmud, P. Schuler, G. A. Sotzing, V. Seshadri, W. Mino, J. Padilla, T. F. Otero, "Electrochromic variable transmission optical combiner," Proc. SPIE (2005) pp. 268-277.
  4. R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, O. Pomerantzeff, "Flying spot TV opthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 19, 2991-2997 (1980).
  5. D. Holmgren, W. Robinett, "Scanned laser displays for virtual reality: A feasibility study," Presence 2, 171-184 (1993).
  6. G. C. de Wit, A retinal scanning display for virtual reality Ph.D. Techn. Univ. DelftDelftThe Netherlands (1997).
  7. G. De Vos, G. Brandt, "Use of holographic optical elements in HMDs," Proc. SPIE (1990).
  8. J. A. Cox, T. A. Fritz, T. Werner, "Application and demonstration of diffractive optics for head-mounted displays," Proc. SPIE (1994).
  9. P. Twardowski, P. Meyrueis, "Design of an optimal single reflective holographic helmet display element," Proc. SPIE Large Screen Projection, Avionic, and Helmet-Mounted Displays (1991).
  10. Welch, "Diffractive optics for head-mounted displays," Proc. SPIE (1995) pp. 209-210.
  11. J. R. Rogers, "Aberrations of optical systems with large tilts and decentrations," Proc. SPIE (1983).
  12. M. J. Hayford, "Optical system design using holographic optical elements," Proc. SPIE (1985).
  13. P. J. Rogers, "Biocular magnifiers—A review," Proc. SPIE 1985 Int. Lens Design Conf. (1985).
  14. W. C. Sweatt, "Describing holographic optical elements as lenses," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 67, 803-808 (1977).
  15. D. Faklis, M. J. Hoppe, "Effects of diffraction on the performance of diffractive realy optics," Proc. SPIE (1994) pp. 32-40.
  16. M. L. Thomas, "Fiber optic development for use on the fiber optic helmet mounted display," Proc. SPIE (1989) pp. 89-95.
  17. D. F. Kocian, Armstrong Aerospace Medical Res. Lab., Visual Display Sytems Branch, Wright-Patterson Air Force BaseDaytonOH“Design considerations for virtual panoramic display (VPD) helmet systems”, (1988).
  18. Scidmore, Flanagan, Wide angle eyepiece with large eye relief U.S. Patent 3 384 434 (1968).
  19. Dilworth, Extreme Wide Angle Eyepiece with Minimal Aberrations U.S. Patent 4 720 183 (1988).
  20. M. Kidger, Fundamentals of Optical Design (SPIE, 2001) pp. 26-27.
  21. R. G. Collier, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971).
  22. D. A. Buralli, G. M. Morris, "Effects of diffraction efficiency on the modulation transfer function of diffractive lenses," Appl. Opt. 31, 4389-4396 (1992).
  23. J. Rolland, Y. Ha, C. Fidiopiastis, "Albertian errors in head-mounted displays: I. Choice of eye-point location for a near- or far-field task visualization," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 21, 901-1118 (2004).
  24. D. Williamson, "The eye in optical systems," Proc. SPIE (1985) pp. 136-147.
  25. W. N. Charman, Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1995).
  26. Katz, Zikos, "Apparent image quality of magnifiers depends on amplitude of accommodation," Optom. Vis. Sci. 71, 226-234 (1994).
  27. G. A. Fry, Applied Optics and Optical Engineering (Academic, 1965) pp. 2-26.
  28. Williams, Coletta, "Cone spacing and the visual resolution limit," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 4, (1987).
  29. C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comparative Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
  30. U.S. Dep. of DefenseWashingtonDCMilitary Handbook 141, “Optical design,” (1962).
  31. W. Knapp, G. Blough, K. Khajurivala, R. Michaels, B. Tatian, B. Volk, "Optical design comparison of 60 degree eyepieces: One with a diffractive surface and one with aspherics," Appl. Opt. 36, 4756-4760.
  32. E. J. Ludvigh, J. W. Miller, "Study of visual acuity during the ocular pursuit of moving test objects: I. Introduction," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 48, 799-802 (1958).
  33. J. E. Melzer, "Overcoming the field of view: Resolution invariant in head mounted displays," Proc. SPIE (1998).
  34. Fundamentals of Wearable Computers and Augmented Reality (Lawrance Erlbaum, 2001).
  35. Tabata, Display Apparatus to be Mounted on the Head or Face o fan Individual U.S . Patent 5 726 670 (1998).
  36. Y. Y. Yeh, L. D. Silverstein, "Limits of fusion and depth judgement in stereoscopic color displays," Human Factors 32, 45-60 (1990).
  37. K. Moffit, Designing HMDs for Viewing Comfort (McGraw-Hill, 1997) pp. 117-142.
  38. J. Rolland, M. Krueger, A. Goon, "Multifocal planes head-mounted displays," Appl. Opt. 39, 3209-3215 (2000).
  39. A. Sisodia, A. Riser, J. R. Rogers, "Design of an advanced helmet mounted display (AHMD)," Proc. SPIE (2005) pp. 304-315.
  40. K. P. Thompson, Aberration fields in tilted and decentered optical systems Ph.D. Univ. ArizonaTempe (1980).
  41. H. Hua, Y. Ha, J. P. Rolland, "Design of an ultra-light and compact projection lens," Appl. Opt. 42, 97-107 (2003).
  42. G. Smith, D. A. Atchison, The Eye and Visual Optical Instruments (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997).
  43. R. Mortimer, A. L. Dyer, J. R. Reynolds, "Electrochromic organic and polymeric materials for display applications," Displays 27, 2-18 (2006).
  44. F. P. Shvartsman, Diffractive and Miniatuzrized Optics (SPIE Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology, 1993).
  45. A. Becker, Miniature video display system U.S. Patent 4 934 773 (1990).
  46. E. Peli, "Visual issues in the use of a head-mounted monocular display," Opt. Eng. 29, 883-892 (1990).
  47. G. J. Burton, N. D. Haig, "Effects of the Seidel aberrations on visual target discrimination," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 1, 373-385 (1984).
  48. T. Stone, N. George, "Hybrid diffractive-refractive lenses and achromats," Appl. Opt. 27, 2960-2971 (1988).
  49. A. P. Wood, "Design of infrared hybrid refractive-diffractive lenses," Appl. Opt. 31, 2253-2258 (1992).
  50. D. M. Green, J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (Wiley, 1966).
  51. J. Wann, S. Rushton, M. Mon-Williams, "Natural problems in the perception of virtual environments," Vision Res. 35, 2731-2736 (1995).
  52. Furness. Virtual Retinal Display U.S. Patent 5 467 104 (1995).
  53. H. Urey, "Vibration mode frequency formulae for micromechanical scanners," J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 1713-1721 (2005).
  54. H. Urey, Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering pp. 2445-2457.
  55. H. Urey, D. Wine, J. Lewis, "Scanner design and resolution tradeoffs for miniature scanning desplays," Flat Panel Display Technology and Display Metrology, Proc. SPIE pp. 60-68.
  56. H. C. Self, Optical tolerances for alignment and image differences for binocular helmet-mounted displays Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Lab.DaytonOH (1986) AAMRL-TR-86-019.
  57. Helmet-Mounted Displays: Design Issues for Rotary-Wing Aircraft C. Rash, U.S. Army Aeromedical Research LabFort RuckerAL (2000).
  58. S. T. Wu, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2001).
  59. R. Patterson, W. L. Martin, "Human stereopsis," Human Factors 34, 669-692 (1992).
  60. P. Mustillo, "Binocular mechanisms mediating crossed and uncrossed stereopsis," Psychol. Bull. 97, 187-201 (1985).
  61. C. M. Schor, I. Wood, "Disparity range for local stereopsis as a function of luminance spatial frequency," Vision Res. 23, 1649-1654 (1983).
  62. M. Rosete-Aguilar, J. L. Rayces, "Eye rotation and vignetting in visual instruments," Appl. Opt. 41, 6593-6602 (2002).
  63. J. Rogers, private communication (2006).
  64. State, "Simulation-based design and rapid prototyping of a parallax-free, orthoscopic video see-through head-mounted display," Proc. Int. Symp. on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR) (2005) pp. 28-31.
  65. I. E. Sutherland, "A head-mounted three-dimensional display," AFIPS Proc. Fall Joint Computer Conf. (1968) pp. 757-764.
  66. K. Kiyokawa, M. Billinghurst, B. Campbell, E. Woods, "An occlusion-capable optical see-through head mount display for supporting co-located collaboration," Proc. Int. Symp. on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR) (2003) pp. 133-141.
  67. S. R. Ellis, U. J. Bucher, "Distance perception of stereoscopically presented virtual objects optically superimposed on physical objects in a head-mounted see-through displays," Proc. Human Factors and Ergonomic Soc. (1994).
  68. M. Shenker, "Image quality considerations for head-mounted displays," Int. Optical Design Conf. (1994).
  69. B. T. Schowengerdt, E. J. Seibel, "True 3D displays that allow viewers to dynamically shift accommodation, bringing objects displayed at different viewing distances into and out of focus," CyberPsychology & Behavior 7, 610-620 (2004).
  70. Manhart, "Augeye: A compact, solid, schmidt optical relay for helmet mounted applications," Proc. IEEE VRAIS '93 pp. 234-245.
  71. R. Kojima, T. Ojika, "Transition between virtual environment and workstation environment with projective head-mounted display," Proc. VRAIS '97 pp. 130-137.
  72. O. Bimber, R. Raskar, Spatial Augmented Reality (Peters, 2005).
  73. Watanabe, "A retinal scanning display with a wavefront curvature modulator," J. Soc. Inf. Display 11, (2003).
  74. C. Pinhanez, "The everywhere displays projector: A device to create ubiquitous graphical interfaces," Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Ubiquitous Computing (2001) pp. 315-331.
  75. G. C. de Wit, "Retinal scanning displays: Light sources moving over the retina," Sci. Progr. 82, 135-149 (1999).
  76. G. C. de Wit, "Contrast of displays on the retina," J. Soc. Inf. Display 13, 178-179 (2005).
  77. G. C. de Wit, private communication (2006).
  78. Starner, "Augmented reality through wearable computing," Presence 6, (1997).
  79. R. E. Jacobson, Applied Optics and Optical Engineering (Academic, 1965).
  80. R. B. Huxford, "Wide FOV head mounted display using hybrid optics," Proc. Optical Design and Engineering (2004).
  81. T. M. Aye, "Compact HMD optics based on multiplexed aberration compensated holographic optical elements," Proc. SPIE Helmet- and Head-Mounted Display VI (2001).
  82. J. E. Melzer, "Design evolution of a wide field of view head-mounted display for aircraft training and simulation," Proc. SPIE Helmet- and Head-Mounted Display VI (2001).
  83. F. J. Ferrin, "An update on optical systems for military head mounted displays," Proc. SPIE Helmet- and Head-Mounted Display IV (1999) pp. 178-185.
  84. Ando, "Head mounted display using holographic optical element," Proc. SPIE (1998) pp. 183-189.
  85. K. Keller, D. Colucci, "Perception in HMDs: What is it in head mounted displays (HMDs) that really make them all so terrible?," Proc. SPIE Helmet- and Head-Mounted Display III (1998).
  86. Hoshi, "Off-axial HMD optical system consisting of aspherical surfaces without rotational symmetru," Proc. SPIE (1996) pp. 234-242.
  87. D. Colucci, V. Chi, "Computer glasses: A compact, light weight and cost effective display for monocular and tiled wide field of view systems," Proc. SPIE pp. 61-70.
  88. J. S. Kollin, M. Tidwell, "Optical engineering challenges of the virtual retinal display," Proc .SPIE pp. 48-60.
  89. Bauer, "Optical coatings on polymers. Advancements in polymer optics design, fabrication and materials," Proc. SPIE .
  90. G. Kelly, M. Shenker, P. Weissman, "Helmet-mounted area of interest," Proc. SPIE (1992) pp. 58-63.
  91. R. A. Buchroeder, "Distortion correction for oblique projection onto a curved screen," Proc. SPIE (1995) pp. 96-104.
  92. J. E. Melzer, "Integrated headgear for the future force warrior and beyond," Proc. SPIE (2005) pp. 173-178.
  93. Y. Ha, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, J. Rolland, "Optical modeling of a holographic single-element head-mounted display," Proc. SPIE (2004) pp. 254-260.
  94. V. Shaoulov, R. Martins, J. Rolland, C. E. Rash, C. E. Reese, “Magnifying miniature displays with microlenslet arrays”in Helmet- and Head-Mounted Displays IX: Technologies and Applications. (2004).
  95. Y. Ha, J. Rolland, "Optical assessment of head-mounted displays in visual space," Appl. Opt. 41, 5282-5289 (2002).
  96. K. M. Robinette, "Anthropometry for HMD design," Proc. SPIE Aerosense (1992) pp. 138-145.
  97. Lippert, "Fundamental monocular/binocular HMD human factors," Proc. SPIE (1990) pp. 185-191.
  98. Howlett, "Wide angle orthostereo," Proc. SPIE (1990) pp. 210-223.
  99. D. Faklis, G. M. Morris, "Diffractive optics technology for display applications," Proc. SPIE (1995) pp. 57-61.
  100. Y. Wang, L. Li, Q. Xin, "Optical design and fabrication in China," Int. Optical Design Conf. (2002).
  101. P. J. Rogers, "The optics/vision interface," Proc. Critical Rev. (1992).
  102. P. Mouroulis, K. Lyons, G. Zhao, "Aberrration balancing in the design of visually coupled lens systems," Proc. SPIE (1993).
  103. R. R. Willey, M. E. Durham, "Ways that designers and fabricators can help each other," Proc. SPIE 1990 Int. Lens Design Conf. (1991).
  104. D. Armitage, I. Underwood, S. T. Wu, Introduction to Microdisplays (Wiley, 2005).
  105. M. Hoppe, J. Melzer, "Optical tiling for wide field-of-view head-mounted displays," Proc. SPIE Conf. on Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering VIII (1999).
  106. A. Yoshida, J. P. Rolland, J. H. Reif, "Design and applications of a high-resolution insert head-mounted display," Proc. 1995 Virtual Reality Annual Int. Symp. (1995) pp. 84-93.
  107. D. Hasenauer, J. Kunick, "Full field mapping and analysis of veiling glare sources for helmet mounted display systems," Proc. SPIE Conf. on Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Eng. VIII (1999).
  108. Rodgers, Thompson, "Benefits of freeform mirror surfaces in optical design," Proc. Amer. Soc. for Precision Eng. (2004).
  109. K. Garrard, T. Bruegge, J. Hoffman, T. Dow, A. Sohn, "Design tools for freeform optics," Proc. SPIE Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Engineering VI (2005).
  110. J. A. La Russa, Image forming apparatus U.S. Patent 3 940 203 (1976).
  111. A. L. Berman, J. E. Melzer, Optical collimating apparatus U.S. Patent 4 859 031 (1989).
  112. M. A. Karim, Electro-Optical Displays (Marcel Dekker, 1992).
  113. Coulman, Petrie, "Some notes on the designing of aspherical magnifiers for binocular vision," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 39, (1949).
  114. H. T. E. Hertzberg, G. S. Daniels, E. Churchill, Antropometry of Flying Personnel Wright Air Development Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force BaseOH WADC TR-52-321.
  115. A. Yalcinkaya, H. Urey, D. Brown, T. Montague, R. Sprague, "Two-axis electromagnetic microscanner for high resolution displays," J. Microelectromech. Syst. (2006).
  116. W. Plummer, "Unusual optics of the polaroid SX-70 land camera," App. Opt. 21, 196- (1982).
  117. W. T. Plummer, J. G. Baker, J. V. Tassell, "Photographic optical systems with nonrotational aspheric surfaces," Appl. Opt. 38, 3572-3592 (1999).
  118. F. Biocca, J. Rolland, "Virtual eyes can rearrange your body: Adaptation to visual displacement in see-through head-mounted displays," Presence 7, 262-278 (1998).
  119. R. Patterson, L. Moe, T. Hewitt, "Factors that affect depth perception in stereoscopic displays," Human Factors 34, 655-667 (1992).
  120. M. D. Missig, G. M. Morris, "Using diffractives in an eyepiece," Appl. Opt. 34, (1995).
  121. M. Velger, Helmet-Mounted Displays and Sights (Artech House, 1998).
  122. R. Patterson, M. Winterbottom, B. Pierce, "Perceptual issues in the use of head-mounted visual displays," Human Factors .
  123. K. N. Ogle, J. T. Schwartz, "Depth of focus of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 49, 273-280 (1959).
  124. R. T. Hennessy, T. Iida, K. Shina, H. W. Leibowitz, "The effect of pupil size on accommodation," Vision Res. 16, 587-589 (1976).
  125. C. A. Johnson, "Effects of luminance and stimulus distance on accommodation and visual resolution," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 66, 138-142 (1976).
  126. A. Ivanoff, "Night binocular convergence and night myopia," JOSA 45, 769-770 (1955).
  127. M. S. Livingstone, D. H. Hubel, "Segregation of form, color, movement, and depth: Anatomy, physiology and perception," Science 240, 740-749 (1988).
  128. Angel, "Quantitative pupillometry: Normative data in healthy pediatric volunteers," J. Neurosurg 103, 496-500 (2005).
  129. D. G. McCauley, C. E. Simpson, W. J. Murbach, "Holographic optical element for visual display applications," Appl. Opt. 12, (1973).
  130. W. A. Kleinhans, "Aberrations of curved zone plates and fresnel lenses," Appl. Opt. 16, (1977).
  131. W. J. Smith, Modern Lens Design (McGraw-Hill, 2005).
  132. W. Mandler, "Design of double Gauss lenses," SPIE (1980) pp. 222.
  133. T. Gold, "Visual disparity tolerances for head-up displays," Electro-Optical System Design Conf. (1971) pp. 399-406.
  134. T. Gold, A. Hyman, “Visual requirements for head-up displays,” Final Rep. Speery-Rand Corp., prepared for the Office of Naval Research (1970) Phase 1. JANAIR report 680712.
  135. E. Tatham, "Getting the best of both real and virtual worlds," Commun. ACM 42, 96-98.
  136. T. Uchida, K. Sato, S. Inokuchi, "An optical see-through MR display with digital micro-mirror device," Trans. Virtual Reality Soc. Jpn. 7, (2002).
  137. O. Cakmakci, Y. Ha, J. Rolland, "A compact optical see-through head-worn display with occlusion support," Proc. Int. Symp. on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR) (2005).
  138. J. Sheedy, N. Bergstrom, "Performance and comfort on near-eye computer displays," Optom Vis Sci. 79, 306-12 (2002).
  139. V. Mahajan, "Aberrations of diffracted wave fields. I. Optical imaging," JOSA A 2216-2222 (2000).
  140. E. R. Kandel, J. H. Schwartz, T. M. Jessell, Essentials of Neural Science and Behavior (McGraw-Hill, 1997).
  141. B. Rhodes, "The wearable remembrance agent: A system for augmented memory," Proc. Int. Symp. on Wearable Computers (ISWC) (1997) pp. 123.
  142. C. Thompson, "Factory automation support technology (FAST)," Proc. Int. Symp. on Wearable Computers (ISWC) (1997) pp. 31.
  143. Daude, "Mobile approach support system for future machine tools," Proc. Int. Symp. on Wearable Computers (ISWC) (1997) pp. 24.
  144. M. Billinghurst, "Wearable computers for three dimensional CSCW," Proc. Int. Symp. on Wearable Computers (ISWC) (1997) pp. 39.
  145. S. Mann, "An historical account of 'WearComp' and 'Wearcam' inventions developed for applications in 'Personal Imaging'," Proc. Int. Symp. on Wearable Computers (ISWC) (1997) pp. 66.
  146. A. P. Pentland, "The digital doctor: An experiment in wearable telemedicine," Proc. Int. Symp. on Wearable Computers (ISWC) (1997) pp. 173.
  147. S. Feiner, "A touring machine: Prototyping 3D mobile augmented reality systems for exploring the urban environment," Proc. Int. Symp. on Wearable Computers (ISWC) (1997) pp. 74.
  148. M. Bauer, "A collaborative wearable system with remote sensing," Proc. Int. Symp. on Wearable Computers (ISWC) (1998) pp. 10.
  149. B. Thomas, "ARQuake: An outdoor/indoor augmented reality first person application," Proc. Int. Symp. on Wearable Computers (ISWC) (2000) pp. 139.
  150. Y. Ohta, H. Tamura, Mixed Reality: Merging Real and Virtual Worlds (Springer-Verlag, 1999).
  151. V. Vlahakis, "Personalized augmented reality touring of acheological sites with wearable and mobile computers," Proc. Int. Symp. on Wearable Computers (ISWC) (2002) pp. 15.
  152. C. Carr, "A wearable computer for support of astronaut extravehicular activity," Proc. Int. Symp. on Wearable Computers (ISWC) (2002) pp. 23.
  153. T. Kawamura, "Wearable interfaces for a video diary," Proc. Int. Symp. on Wearable Computers (ISWC) (2002) pp. 3.
  154. Y. Baillot, J. Rolland, K. Lin, D. Wright, "Automatica modeling of knee-joint motion for the virtual reality dynamic anatomy (VRDA) tool," Presence 9, 223-235 (2000).
  155. D. F. Ormerod, "Use of a see-through head-worn display of patient monitoring data to engance anesthesiologists'response to abnormal clinical events," Proc. Int. Symp. on Wearable Computers (ISWC) (2002) pp. 131.
  156. A. D. Cheok, "Game-city: A ubiquitous large area multi-interface mixed reality game space for wearable computers," Proc. Int. Symp. on Wearable Computers (ISWC) (2002) pp. 156.
  157. J. Cross, "Layered annotations of digital images for data collection in the field," Proc. Int. Symp. on Wearable Computers (ISWC) (2003) pp. 154.
  158. R. A. Buchroeder, G. W. Seeley, D. Vukobratovich, “Design of a catadioptric vcass helmet-mounted display,” Final Report Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona, under contract to U.S. Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Res. Lab., Wright-Patterson Air Force BaseDaytonOH AFAMRL-TR-81-133.
  159. A. Takagi, S. Yamazaki, Y. Saito, N. Taniguchi, "Development of a stereo video see-through HMD for AT systems," Int. Symp. on Augmented Reality (2000).
  160. Y. Argotti, L. Davis, V. Outters, J. Rolland, "Dynamic superimposition of synthetic objects on rigid and simple-deformable real objects," Computers & Graphics 26, 919-930 (2002).
  161. R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, B. MacIntyre, "Recent advances in augmented reality," IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 21, 34-47 (2001).
  162. P. Mouroulis, T. G. Kim, G. Zhao, "Transverse color tolerances for visual optical systems," Appl. Opt. 32, (1993).
  163. M. Reiss, "The $\cos ^{4}$ law of illumination," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 35, 283-288 (1945).
  164. Martins, Head-mounted display by integration of phase-conjugate material U.S. Patent 6 999 239 (2006).
  165. Harvey, "Aberrations of diffracted fields: Distortion," Appl. Opt. 42, 1167-74 (2003).
  166. Vaissie, head mounted display with eyetracking capability U.S. 6 433 760 (2002).
  167. J. Rolland, H. Hua, Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering (Marcel Dekker, 2005).
  168. C. Curatu, "Projection-based head-mounted display with eye tracking capabilities," Proc. SPIE Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VIII (2005) pp. 141-149.
  169. J. P. Rolland, "Towards quantifying depth and size perception in virtual environments," Presence 4, 24-49 (1995).
  170. J. P. Rolland, "Method of adjustments versus method of constant stimuli in the quantification of accuracy and precision of rendered depth in head-mounted displays," Presence 11, 610-625 (2002).
  171. E. H. Stupp, M. S. Brennesholtz, Projection Displays (Wiley, 1999).
  172. D. Burr, "Motion smear," Nature 284, 164-165 (1980).
  173. R. Patterson, private communication (2006).
  174. R. Patterson, "Spatiotemporal properties of stereoacuity," Optom. and Vision Sci. 67, 123-128 (1990).
  175. R. H. Cormack, "Stereoscopic depth perception at far viewing distances," Perception & Psychophys. 35, 423-428 (1984).
  176. R. Patterson, R. Fox, "The effect of testing method on stereoanomaly," Vision Res. 24, 403-408 (1984).
  177. S. Becker, C. Bowd, S. Shorter, K. King, R. Patterson, "Occlusion contributes to temporal processing differences between crossed and uncrossed stereopsis in random-dot displays," Vision Res. 39, 331-339 (1999).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited