OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Display Technology

Journal of Display Technology

| A JOINT IEEE/OSA PUBLICATION

  • Editor: Shin-Tson Wu
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 1 — Sep. 1, 2005
  • pp: 15–

Transflective Liquid Crystal Displays

Xinyu Zhu, Zhibing Ge, Thomas X. Wu, and Shin-Tson Wu

Journal of Display Technology, Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. 15- (2005)


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1182 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations
  • Export Citation/Save Click for help

Abstract

In this review paper, a detailed overview of the transflective liquid crystal display (LCD) technology is presented. We first introduce the transflector classifications based on their composition and properties. Then, in reviewing the development history, we investigate the mainstream transflective LCDs, including their operating principles, advantages, and disadvantages. Finally, the image quality issues of transflective LCDs, such as color balance, image brightness, and viewing angle, are discussed.

© 2005 IEEE

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Citation
Xinyu Zhu, Zhibing Ge, Thomas X. Wu, and Shin-Tson Wu, "Transflective Liquid Crystal Displays," J. Display Technol. 1, 15- (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jdt/abstract.cfm?URI=jdt-1-1-15


Sort:  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, "Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 127-128, Feb. 1971.
  2. M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, "Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 67, pp. 3895-3897, Dec. 1995.
  3. K. Ohmuro, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki and Y. Koike, "Development of super-high-image-quality vertical-alignment-mode LCD", in SID Dig. Tech. Papers, vol. 28, 1997, pp. 845-848.
  4. S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays, New York: Wiley, 2001.
  5. R. D. Ketchpel and S. Barbara, "Transflector", U.S. Patent 4 040 727, Aug. 9, 1977.
  6. H. C. Borden Jr., "Universal Transmission Reflectance Mode Liquid Crystal Display", U.S. Patent 3 748 018, Jul. 24, 1973.
  7. J. E. Bigelow, "Transflective Liquid Crystal Display", U.S. Patent 4 093 356, Jun. 6, 1978.
  8. H. Furuhashi, C. K. Wei and C. W. Wu, "Transflective liquid crystal display having dielectric multilayer in LCD cells", U.S. Patent 6 806 934, Oct. 19, 2004.
  9. D. R. Hall, "Transflective LCD Utilizing Chiral Liquid Crystal Filter/Mirrors", U.S. Patent 5 841 494, Nov. 24, 1998.
  10. W. J. Schrenk, V. S. Chang and J. A. Wheatley, "Birefringent Interference Polarizer", U.S. Patent 5 612 820, Mar. 18, 1997.
  11. D. P. Hansen and J. E. Gunther, "Dual Mode Reflective/Transmissive Liquid Crystal Display Apparatus", U.S. Patent 5 986 730, Nov. 16, 1999.
  12. P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford university press, 1993.
  13. J. Ouderkirk, S. Cobb Jr., B. D. Cull, M. F. Weber and D. L. Wortman, "Transflective Displays With Reflective Polarizing Transflector", Sep. 26, 2000.
  14. M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams and W. L. Wolfe, Handbook of Optics, vol. II, Devices, Measurements, & Properties, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995, pp. 3.32-3.35.
  15. R. T. Perkins, D. P. Hansen, E. W. Gardner, J. M. Thorne and A. A. Robbins, "Broadband Wire Grid Polarizer for the Visible Spectrum", U.S. Patent 6 122 103, Sept. 19, 2000.
  16. G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, "Guest-host interactions in nematic liquid crystals. A new electro-optic effect", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 91-92, Aug. 1968.
  17. D. L. White and G. N. Taylor, "New absorptive mode reflective liquid-crystal display device", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 45, pp. 4718-4723, Nov. 1974.
  18. H. S. Cole, "Transflective Liquid Crystal Display", U.S. Patent 4 398 805, Aug. 16, 1983.
  19. S. Morozumi, K. Oguchi, R. Araki, T. Sonehara and S. Aruga, "Full-color TFT-LCD with phase-change guest-host mode", in SID Dig. Tech. Papers, 1985, pp. 278-281.
  20. J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu and S. Zumer, "Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 48, pp. 269-271, Jan. 1986.
  21. D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, Z. Yaniv and J. Glasser, "Cholesteric reflective display: drive scheme and contrast", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 64, pp. 1905-1907, Apr. 1994.
  22. R. A. M. Hikmet, "Electrically induced light scattering from anisotropic gels", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 68, pp. 4406-4412, Nov. 1990.
  23. H. Ren and S.-T. Wu, "Anisotropic liquid crystal gels for switchable polarizers and displays", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 81, pp. 1432-1434, Aug. 2002.
  24. Y.-P. Huang, X. Zhu, H. Ren, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, S.-T. Wu, S.-H. Lin and H.-P. D. Shieh, "Full-color transflective Ch-LCD with image-enhanced reflector", in SID Dig. Tech. Papers , 2004, pp. 882-885.
  25. Y.-P. Huang, X. Zhu, H. Ren, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, S.-T. Wu, M.-Z. Su, M.-X. Chan, S.-H. Lin and H.-P. D. Shieh, "Full-color transflective cholesteric LCD with image-enhanced reflector", J. SID, vol. 12, pp. 417-422, 2004.
  26. A. Lien, "Extended Jones matrix representation for the twisted nematic liquid-crystal display at oblique incidence", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 57, pp. 2767-2769, Dec. 1990.
  27. F. J. Kahn, "Reflective mode, 40-character, alphanumeric twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays", in SID Dig. Tech. Papers, 1978, pp. 74-75.
  28. W. H. McKnight, L. B. Stotts and M. A. Monahan, "Transmissive and Reflective Liquid Crystal Display", U.S. Patent 4 315 258, Feb. 9, 1982.
  29. C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, "The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twist angles <= 90 degrees", J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., vol. 8, pp. 1575-1584, Sep. 1975.
  30. K. Kawasaki, K. Yamada, R. Watanabe and K. Mizunoya, "High-display performance black and white supertwisted nematic LCD", in SID Dig. Tech. Papers, 1987, pp. 391- 394.
  31. T. J. Scheffer and J. Nehring, "A new, highly multiplexable liquid crystal display", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 45, pp. 1021-1023, Nov. 1984 .
  32. T. Maeda, T. Matsushima, E. Okamoto, H. Wada, O. Okumura and S. Iino, "Reflective and transflective color LCDs with double polarizers", in J. SID, vol. 7, 1999, pp. 9-15.
  33. T. Ohyama, Y. Ukai, L. Fennell, Y. Kato, H. G. Bae and P.-W. Sung, "TN mode TFT-LCD with in-cell polarizer", in SID Digest Tech. Papers, 2004, pp. 1106-1109.
  34. S.-T. Wu and C.-S. Wu, "Mixed-mode twisted nematic liquid crystal cells for reflective displays", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 68, pp. 1455-1457, Mar. 1996.
  35. H. Molsen and M. D. Tillin, "Transflective liquid crystal displays", International Patent Appl. no. PCT/JP99/05210 and International Publ. no. WO 00/17707, Mar. 30, 2000.
  36. S. Pancharatnam, "Achromatic combinations of birefringent plates: part I. An achromatic circular polarizer", in Proc. Indian Academy of Science, vol. 41, 1955, pp. 130-136.
  37. S. J. Roosendaal, B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Nieuwkerk, C. A. Renders, J. T. M. Osenga, C. Doornkamp, E. Peeters, J. Bruinink, J. A. M. M. van Haaren and S. Takahashi, "Novel high performance transflective LCD with a patterned retarder", in SID Dig. Tech. Papers, 2003, pp. 78-81.
  38. B. M. I. van der Zande, A. C. Nieuwkerk, M. van Deurzen, C. A. Renders, E. Peeters and S. J. Roosendaal, "Technologies toward patterned optical foils", in SID Dig. Tech. Papers, 2003, pp. 194-197.
  39. M. Okamoto, H. Hiraki and S. Mitsui, "Liquid crystal display", U.S. Patent 6 281 952, Aug. 28, 2001.
  40. T. Uesaka, E. Yoda, T. Ogasawara and T. Toyooka, "Optical design for wide-viewing-angle transflective TFT-LCDs with hybrid aligned nematic compensator", in Proc. 9th Int. Display Workshops, 2002, pp. 417-420.
  41. S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon and J. C. Kim, "A multimode-type transflective liquid crystal display using the hybrid-aligned nematic and parallel-rubbed vertically aligned modes", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 42, pp. 5127-5132, Aug. 2003.
  42. Y. J. Lim, J. H. Song, Y. B. Kim and S. H. Lee, "Single gap transflective liquid crystal display with dual orientation of liquid crystal", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, pp. L972-L974, Jul. 2004.
  43. S. H. Lee, H. W. Do, G.-D. Lee, T.-H. Yoon and J. C. Kim, "A novel transflective liquid crystal display with a periodically patterned electrode", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 42, pp. L1455-L1458, Dec. 2003.
  44. J. H. Song and S. H. Lee, "A single gap transflective display using in-plane switching mode", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, pp. L1130-L1132, Sep. 2004.
  45. M. Shimizu, Y. Itoh and M. Kubo, "Liquid crystal display device", U.S. Patent 6 341 002, Jan. 22, 2002.
  46. M. Shibazaki, Y. Ukawa, S. Takahashi, Y. Iefuji and T. Nakagawa, "Transflective LCD with low driving voltage and wide viewing angle", in SID Dig. Tech. Papers, 2003, pp. 90-93.
  47. H. D. Liu and S. C. Lin, "A novel design wide view angle partially reflective super multi-domain homeotropically aligned LCD", in SID Dig. Tech. Papers , 2002, pp. 558-561.
  48. C. L. Yang, "Electro-optics of a transflective liquid crystal display with hybrid-aligned liquid crystal texture", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. , vol. 43, pp. 4273-4275, Jul. 2004.
  49. T. B. Jung, J. C. Kim and S. H. Lee, "Wide-viewing-angle transflective display associated with a fringe-field driven homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal display", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 42, pp. L464-L467, May 2003.
  50. T. B. Jung, J. H. Song, D.-S. Seo and S. H. Lee, "Viewing angle characteristics of transflective display in a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell driven by fringe-field", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, pp. L1211-L1213, Sep. 2004.
  51. Y. P. Huang, M. J. Su, H. P. D. Shieh and S. T. Wu, "A single cell-gap transflective color TFT-LCD by using image-enhanced reflector", in SID Dig. Tech. Papers, 2003, pp. 86-89.
  52. R. van Asselt, R. A. W. van Rooij and D. J. Broer, "Birefringent color reflective liquid crystal displays using broadband cholesteric reflectors", in SID Dig. Tech. Papers, 2000, pp. 742-745.
  53. Y. Hisatake, T. Ohtake, A. Oono and Y. Higuchi, "A novel transflective TFT-LCD using cholesteric half reflector", in Proc. 8th Int. Display Workshops, 2001, pp. 129-132.
  54. W. S. Park, S.-C. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. S. Hwang, G.-D. Lee, T.-H. Yoon and J. C. Kim, "A new design of optical configuration of transflective liquid crystal displays using antiferroelectric liquid crystals and frustelectric ferroelectric liquid crystals", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 40, pp. 6654-6657, Nov. 2001.
  55. K. Fujimori, Y. Narutaki, Y. Itoh, N. Kimura, S. Mizushima, Y. Ishii and M. Hijikigawa, "New color filter structures for transflective TFT-LCD", in SID Dig. Tech. Papers, 2002, pp. 1382-1385.
  56. K.-J. Kim, J. S. Lim, T. Y. Jung, C. Nam and B. C. Ahn, "A new transflective TFT-LCD with dual color filter", in Proc. 9th Int. Display Workshops, 2002, pp. 433-436.
  57. M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams and W. L. Wolfe, Handbook of Optics, vol. II, Devices, Measurements, & Properties, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995, pp. 35.28-35.42.
  58. Y. S. Yang, Y. P. Huang, H. P. D. Shieh, M. C. Tsai and C. Y. Tsai, "Applications of microtube array on transflective liquid crystal displays for backlight efficiency enhancement", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, pp. 8075-8079, Dec. 2004.
  59. Z. Ge, T. X. Wu, X. Zhu and S. T. Wu, "Reflective liquid crystal displays with asymmetric incidence and exit angles", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 22, pp. 966-977, May 2005.

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited