OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Display Technology

Journal of Display Technology


  • Vol. 3, Iss. 2 — Jun. 1, 2007
  • pp: 126–132

Nitride-Based Green Light-Emitting Diodes With Various p-Type Layers

Wonseok Lee, Jae Limb, Jae-Hyun Ryou, Dongwon Yoo, Mark Andrew Ewing, Yair Korenblit, and Russell D. Dupuis

Journal of Display Technology, Vol. 3, Issue 2, pp. 126-132 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1369 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


The performance characteristics of green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown by metal–organic chemical-vapor deposition were investigated to study the dependence of the device performance on the materials and the growth conditions of p-type layer grown after the InGaN multiple-quantum-well active region. The electrical and structural qualities of Mg-doped p-In0.04 Ga0.96 N and p-GaN layers grown under different growth conditions were studied to optimize the growth conditions of p-type hole injection layers of green LEDs. A free-hole concentration of p = 1.6×1018 cm-3 of with a resistivity of 0.33 Ω · cm was achieved for p-GaN:Mg layers grown at 1040°C. Lower hole concentrations and mobilities and rough surfaces were obtained when the growth temperature was decreased to 930°C in H2 ambient. In the case of p - In0.04Ga0.96N grown at 840 °C N2, a significant improvement of the hole concentration was achieved due to the reduced ionization activation energy of Mg acceptors in InGaN. Also we observed that as-grown p-GaN layers grown in N2 ambient showed p-type properties without Mg dopant activation. The electrical and optical properties of In0.25 Ga0.75 N/GaN multiple-quantum-well green LEDs with such different p-layers were investigated. The electroluminescence intensity was improved for the LEDs with p-In0.04 layers grown at 840°C as compared to the LEDs with p-GaN layers grown at higher temperatures due to the reduced thermal damage to the active region, high hole injection, and low piezoelectric field induced in the active region. p-InGaN layers are very attractive candidates for the p-layer in green LED structures. The low temperature and N2 ambient used during the growth of InGaN layers are beneficial to protect the InGaN active region containing high-indium composition quantum-well layers in addition to the advantage of providing a higher hole concentration. However, the LEDs with p-In0.04 Ga0.96 N layer showed a slightly higher turn on voltage which could originate from the potential barrier for hole transport at the interface of the p-InGaN layer and the last GaN quantum-well barrier. to reduce this problem, we designed and characterized an LED structure having a graded indium composition in the p-In0.04 Ga0.96N layer in order to improve hole transport into the active region. Optimized LEDs with p-InGaN layers grown in a N2 ambient showed much brighter electroluminescence due to low damage to the active region during p-InGaN layer growth.

© 2007 IEEE

Wonseok Lee, Jae Limb, Jae-Hyun Ryou, Dongwon Yoo, Mark Andrew Ewing, Yair Korenblit, and Russell D. Dupuis, "Nitride-Based Green Light-Emitting Diodes With Various p-Type Layers," J. Display Technol. 3, 126-132 (2007)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. B. Gil, Group III Nitride Semiconductor Compounds (Oxford University Press, 1998).
  2. S. Muthu, F. J. P. Schuurmans, M. D. Pashley, "Red, green, and blue LEDs for white light illumination," IEEE J. Select. Topic Quantum Electron. 8, 333-338 (2002).
  3. M. Krames, DoE Workshop on Solid State Lighting (2003).
  4. T. Matsuoka, H. Okamoto, M. Nakao, H. Harima, E. Kurimoto, "Optical bandgap energy of wurtzite InN," App. Phys. Lett. 81, 1246-1248 (2002).
  5. M. D. McCluskey, L. T. Romano, B. S. Krusor, N. M. Johnson, T. Suski, J. Jun, "Interdiffusion of In and Ga in InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1281-1283 (1998).
  6. M. D. McCluskey, L. T. Romano, B. S. Krusor, D. P. Bohr, N. M. Johnson, S. Brennan, "Phase separation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1730-1732 (1998).
  7. C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, J.-I. Chyi, "Interdiffusion of In and Ga in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 314-316 (2001).
  8. F. A. Ponce, S. Srinivasan, A. Bell, L. Geng, R. Liu, M. Stevens, J. Cai, H. Omiya, H. Marui, S. Tanaka, "Microstructure and electronic properties of InGaN alloys," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 240, 273-284 (2003).
  9. F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, "Spontaneous versus piezoelectric polarization in III-V nitrides: Conceptual aspects and practical consequences," Phys. Status Solidi B. 216, 391-398 (1999).
  10. T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, "Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2L382-L385 (1997).
  11. T. Asano, T. Tojyo, T. Mizuno, M. Takeya, S. Ikeda, K. Shibuya, T. Hino, S. Uchida, M. Ikeda, "100-mW kink free blue-violet laser diodes with low aspect ratio," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 135-140 (2003).
  12. C. S. Kim, H. G. Kim, C.-H. Hong, "Effect of compressive strain relaxation in GaN blue light-emitting diodes with variation of $n^{+}$-GaN thickness on its device performance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 013502-1-013502-3 (2005).
  13. G. Franssen, T. Suski, P. Perlin, R. Bohdan, A. Bercha, W. Trzeciakowski, I. Makarowa, P. Prystawko, M. Leszczyski, I. Grzegory, S. Porowski, S. Kokenyesi, "Fully-screened polarization-induced electric fields in blue/violet InGaN/GaN light-emitting devices grown on bulk GaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 041109-1-041109-3 (2005).
  14. N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, M. R. Krames, "Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of $m$-plane InGaN-GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111101-1-111101-3 (2005).
  15. C.-F. Lin, J.-H. Zheng, Z.-J. Yang, J.-J. Dai, D.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Chang, Z.-X. Lai, C. S. Hong, "High-efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083121-1-083121-3 (2006).
  16. W. Götz, N. M. Johnson, J. Walker, D. P. Bour, R. A. Street, "Activation of acceptors in Mg-doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 667-669 (1996).
  17. W. Lee, J. Limb, J.-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, T. Chung, R. D. Dupuis, "Influence of growth temperature and growth rate of p-GaN layers on the characteristics of green light emitting diodes," J. Electron. Mater. 35, 587-591 (2006).
  18. S. Kitamura, K. Hiramatsu, N. Sawaki, "Fabrication of GaN hexagonal pyramids on dot-patterned GaN/sapphire substrates via selective metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1184-L1186 (1995).
  19. K. Kumakura, T. Makimoto, N. Kobayashi, "High hole concentrations in Mg-doped InGaN grown by MOVPE," J. Crystal Growth 221, 267-270 (2000).
  20. K. Kumakura, T. Makimoto, N. Kobayashi, "Mg-acceptor activation mechanism and transport characteristics in p-type InGaN grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3370-3375 (2003).
  21. M. E. Lin, G. Xue, G. L. Zhou, J. E. Greene, H. Morkoç, "$p$-type zinc-blende GaN on GaAs substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 932-933 (1993).
  22. C. Wang, R. F. Davis, "Deposition of highly resistive, undoped, and $p$-type, magnesium-doped gallium nitride films by modified gas source molecular beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 990-992 (1993).
  23. M. Rubin, N. Newman, J. S. Chan, T. C. Fu, J. T. Ross, "$p$-type gallium nitride by reactive ion-beam molecular beam epitaxy with ion implantation, diffusion, or coevaporation of Mg," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 64-66 (1994).
  24. Z. H. Wu, M. Stevens, F. A. Ponce, W. Lee, J. H. Ryou, D. Yoo, R. D. Dupuis, "Mapping the electrostatic potential profile across AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures by electron holography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 032101-1-032101-3 (2007).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited