The performance characteristics of green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown by metal–organic chemical-vapor deposition were investigated to study the dependence of the device performance on the materials and the growth conditions of p-type layer grown after the InGaN multiple-quantum-well active region. The electrical and structural qualities of Mg-doped p-In0.04 Ga0.96 N and p-GaN layers grown under different growth conditions were studied to optimize the growth conditions of p-type hole injection layers of green LEDs. A free-hole concentration of p = 1.6×1018 cm-3 of with a resistivity of 0.33 Ω · cm was achieved for p-GaN:Mg layers grown at 1040°C. Lower hole concentrations and mobilities and rough surfaces were obtained when the growth temperature was decreased to 930°C in H2 ambient. In the case of p - In0.04Ga0.96N grown at 840 °C N2, a significant improvement of the hole concentration was achieved due to the reduced ionization activation energy of Mg acceptors in InGaN. Also we observed that as-grown p-GaN layers grown in N2 ambient showed p-type properties without Mg dopant activation. The electrical and optical properties of In0.25 Ga0.75 N/GaN multiple-quantum-well green LEDs with such different p-layers were investigated. The electroluminescence intensity was improved for the LEDs with p-In0.04 layers grown at 840°C as compared to the LEDs with p-GaN layers grown at higher temperatures due to the reduced thermal damage to the active region, high hole injection, and low piezoelectric field induced in the active region. p-InGaN layers are very attractive candidates for the p-layer in green LED structures. The low temperature and N2 ambient used during the growth of InGaN layers are beneficial to protect the InGaN active region containing high-indium composition quantum-well layers in addition to the advantage of providing a higher hole concentration. However, the LEDs with p-In0.04 Ga0.96 N layer showed a slightly higher turn on voltage which could originate from the potential barrier for hole transport at the interface of the p-InGaN layer and the last GaN quantum-well barrier. to reduce this problem, we designed and characterized an LED structure having a graded indium composition in the p-In0.04 Ga0.96N layer in order to improve hole transport into the active region. Optimized LEDs with p-InGaN layers grown in a N2 ambient showed much brighter electroluminescence due to low damage to the active region during p-InGaN layer growth.
© 2007 IEEE
Wonseok Lee, Jae Limb, Jae-Hyun Ryou, Dongwon Yoo, Mark Andrew Ewing, Yair Korenblit, and Russell D. Dupuis, "Nitride-Based Green Light-Emitting Diodes With Various p-Type Layers," J. Display Technol. 3, 126-132 (2007)