OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Display Technology

Journal of Display Technology


  • Vol. 3, Iss. 2 — Jun. 1, 2007
  • pp: 155–159

ELiXIR—Solid-State Luminaire With Enhanced Light Extraction by Internal Reflection

Steven C. Allen and Andrew J. Steckl

Journal of Display Technology, Vol. 3, Issue 2, pp. 155-159 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (578 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


A phosphor-converted light-emitting diode (pcLED) luminaire featuring enhanced light extraction by internal reflection (ELiXIR) with efficacy of 60 lm/W producing 18 lumens of yellowish green light at 100 mA is presented. The luminaire consists of a commercial blue high power LED, a polymer hemispherical shell lens with interior phosphor coating, and planar aluminized reflector. High extraction efficiency of the phosphor-converted light is achieved by separating the phosphor from the LED and using internal reflection to steer the light away from lossy reflectors and the LED package and out of the device. At 10 and 500 mA, the luminaire produces 2.1 and 66 lumens with efficacies of 80 and 37 lm/W, respectively. Technological improvements over existing commercial LEDs, such as more efficient pcLED packages or, alternatively, higher efficiency green or yellow for color mixing, will be essential to achieving 150–200 lm/W solid-state lighting. Advances in both areas are demonstrated.

© 2007 IEEE

Steven C. Allen and Andrew J. Steckl, "ELiXIR—Solid-State Luminaire With Enhanced Light Extraction by Internal Reflection," J. Display Technol. 3, 155-159 (2007)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. “Solid-State Lighting Research and Development Portfolio,” Lighting Research and Development Building Technologies Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (2006)) http://www.netl.doe.gov/ssl/PDFs/SSLMultiYearPlan.pdf.
  2. J. Y. Tsao, An OIDA Technology Roadmap Update 2002 (2002)) http://www.netl.doe.gov/ssl/workshop/Report%20led%20November%202002a_1.pdf.
  3. R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, T. Trottier, "High-power phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides," IEEE J. Sel.Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 339-345 (2002).
  4. N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, Y. Zhu, "Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency," Phys. Stat. Sol. 202, R60-R62 (2005).
  5. K. Yamada, Y. Imai, K. Ishii, "Optical simulation of light source devices composed of blue LEDs and YAG phosphor," J. Light Vis. Environ. 27, 70-74 (2003).
  6. M. Krames, Progress and Future Direction of LED Technology (2003)) http://www.netl.doe.gov/ssl/PDFs/Krames.pdf.
  7. R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, T. Trottier, M. R. Krames, A. Kim, D. Steigerwald, "Green phosphor-converted LED," Proc. SPIE (2002) pp. 131-136.
  8. P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, J. Schneider, "Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. A 64, 417-418 (1997).
  9. P. Schlotter, J. Baur, C. Hielscher, M. Kunzer, H. Obloh, R. Schmidt, J. Schneider, "Fabrication and characterization of GaN/InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure LEDs and their application in luminescence conversion LEDs (LUCOLEDs)," Mat. Sci. Eng. B59, 390-394 (1999).
  10. S. Guha, R. A. Haight, N. A. Bojarczuk, D. W. Kisker, "Hybrid organic-inorganic semiconductor-based light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4126-4128 (1997).
  11. O. N. Ermakov, M. G. Kaplunov, O. N. Efimov, I. K. Yakushchenko, M. Y. Belov, M. F. Budyka, "Hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes," Microelectron. Eng. 69, 208-212 (2003).
  12. A. J. Steckl, J. Heikenfeld, S. C. Allen, "Light wave coupled flat panel displays and solid-state lighting using hybrid inorganic/organic materials," J. Display Technol. 1, 157-166 (2005).
  13. H.-F. Xiang, S.-C. Yu, C.-M. Che, P. T. Lai, "Efficient white and red light emission from GaN/tris-(8-hydroxyquinolato) aluminum/platinum(II) meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin hybrid light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1518-1520 (2003).
  14. BASF CorporationLumogen F Yellow 083 (2006)) http://www.basf.com/additives/pdfs/lumyel083.pdf.
  15. G. Seybold, G. Wagonblast, "New perylene and violanthrone dyestuffs for fluorescent collectors," Dyes and Pigments 11, 303-317 (1989).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited