OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Display Technology

Journal of Display Technology


  • Vol. 5, Iss. 2 — Feb. 1, 2009
  • pp: 61–65

Computational Reconstruction of Three-Dimensional Integral Imaging by Rearrangement of Elemental Image Pixels

Myungjin Cho and Bahram Javidi

Journal of Display Technology, Vol. 5, Issue 2, pp. 61-65 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (565 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


In this paper, we present a method to implement computational three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging (II). This method is based on Pixels of the Elemental Image Rearrangement Technique (PERT). In our proposed method for computational reconstruction of II, the reconstructed 3D image is obtained by using the entire elemental images which are captured from the lenslet array. Instead of averaging the elemental images, our proposed method rearranges pixels of each elemental image. Therefore, the reconstructed 3D image has the same number of pixels as the entire elemental images' pixels. To verify this computational reconstruction method, we have implemented optical experiments.

© 2009 IEEE

Myungjin Cho and Bahram Javidi, "Computational Reconstruction of Three-Dimensional Integral Imaging by Rearrangement of Elemental Image Pixels," J. Display Technol. 5, 61-65 (2009)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. G. Lippmann, "La photographic integrale," C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).
  2. F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, I. Yuyama, "Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography," Opt. Eng. 38, 1072-1077 (1999).
  3. S.-H. Hong, J.-S. Jang, B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional volumetric object reconstruction using computational integral imaging," Opt. Express 12, 483-491 (2004).
  4. H. Arimoto, B. Javidi, "Integral three-dimensional imaging with digital reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 26, 157-159 (2001).
  5. M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, "Integral imaging with improved depth of field by use of amplitude-modulated microlens arrays," Appl. Opt. 43, 5806-5813 (2004).
  6. R. Martínez, A. Pons, G. Saavedra, M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, "Optically-corrected elemental images for undistorted integral image display," Opt. Express 14, 9657-9663 (2006).
  7. R. Martínez-Cuenca, H. Navarro, G. Saavedra, B. Javidi, M. Martínez-Corral, "Enhanced viewing-angle integral imaging by multiple-axis telecentric relay system," Opt. Express 15, 16255-16260 (2007).
  8. T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Technique (Academic, 1976).
  9. H. E. Ives, "Optical properties of a Lippmann lenticular sheet," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 21, 171-176 (1931).
  10. C. B. Burckhardt, "Optimum parameters and resolution limitation of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 71-76 (1968).
  11. T. Okoshi, "Optimum design and depth resolution of lens sheet and projection type three dimensional display," Appl. Opt. 10, 2284-2291 (1971).
  12. A. Castro, Y. Frauel, B. Javidi, "Integral imaging with large depth of field using an asymmetric phase mask," Opt. Express 15, 10266-10273 (2007).
  13. Y. Frauel, B. Javidi, "Digital three-dimensional image correlation by use of computer-reconstructed integral imaging," Appl. Opt. 41, 5488-5496 (2002).
  14. J. Arai, F. Okano, H. Hoshino, I. Yuyama, "Gradient-index lens-array method based on real time integral photography for three-dimensinoal images," Appl. Opt. 37, 2034-2045 (1998).
  15. H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, I. Yuyama, "Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 15, 2059-2065 (1998).
  16. F. Jin, J.-S. Jang, B. Javidi, "Effect of device resolution on three-dimensional integral imaging," Opt. Lett. 29, 1345-1347 (2004).
  17. A. Stern, B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional image sensing visualization, and processing using integral imaging," Proc. IEEE 94, 591-607 (2006).
  18. J.-S. Jang, B. Javidi, "Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics," Opt. Lett. 27, 324-326 (2002).
  19. S.-H. Hong, B. Javidi, "Improved resolution 3D object reconstruction using computational integral imaging with time multiplexing," Opt. Express 12, 4579-4588 (2004).
  20. S.-W. Min, B. Javidi, B. Lee, "Enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system by use of double display devices," Appl. Opt. 42, 4186-4195 (2003).
  21. S. Kishk, B. Javidi, "Improved resolution 3D object sensing and recognition using time multiplexed computational integral imaging," Opt. Express 11, 3528-3541 (2003).
  22. J.-S. Jang, Y.-S. Oh, B. Javidi, "Spatiotemporally multiplexed integral imaging projector for large-scale high-resolution three-dimensinoal display," Opt. Express 12, 557-563 (2004).
  23. D. H. Shin, H. Yoo, "Image quality enhancement in 3D computational integral imaging by use of interpolation methods," Opt. Express 15, 12039-12049 (2007).
  24. J.-S. Jang, B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional synthetic aperture integral imaging," Opt. Lett. 27, 1144-1146 (2002).
  25. S. Yeom, B. Javidi, E. Watson, "Photon counting passive 3D image sensing for automatic target recognition," Opt. Express 13, 9310-9331 (2005).
  26. B. Javidi, S. H. Hong, O. Matoba, "Multidimensional optical sensor and imaging system," Appl. Opt. 45, 2986-2994 (2006).
  27. A. Stern, B. Javidi, "Ray phase space approach for 3D imaging and 3D optical data representation," IEEE J. Display Technol. 1, 141-150 (2005).
  28. J.-S. Jang, B. Javidi, "Large depth-of-focus time-multiplexed three-dimensional integral imaging by use of lenslets with non-uniform focal lengths and aperture sizes," Opt. Lett. 28, 1924-1926 (2003).
  29. J.-S. Jang, B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional integral imaging with electronically synthesized lenslet arrays," Opt. Lett. 27, 1767-1769 (2002).
  30. M. Levoy, P. Hanrahan, "Light field rendering," Proc. SIGGRAPH (1996) pp. 31-42.
  31. D. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming (Addison-Wesley, 1997).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited