OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Display Technology

Journal of Display Technology


  • Vol. 9, Iss. 10 — Oct. 1, 2013
  • pp: 787–793

Tandem Organic Light-Emitting Diode and Organic Photovoltaic Device Inside Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Cell

Tien-Lung Chiu, Wei-Fu Chang, Cheng-Che Wu, Chi-Feng Lin, Jiunn-Yih Lee, Shun-Wei Liu, Chin-Ti Chen, and Jiun-Haw Lee

Journal of Display Technology, Vol. 9, Issue 10, pp. 787-793 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (998 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


We have demonstrated a vertically stacked device consisting of organic photovoltaic device (OPV) and organic light-emitting diode (OLED) inside a polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) cell. In such a device, OLED and PDLC acted as transmissive- (T-) and reflective- (R-) mode, respectively, of a transflective display without the tradeoff of aperture ratio between R- and T-modes in a conventional transflective LC display. OPV functioned as the black background for PDLC operation and increased the contrast ratio of OLED. Electrical characteristics of OLED and OPV in the stacked device were nearly identical to their individual device, which showed the fabrication process had little effect on OLED and OPV performances. However, their optical properties showed a little degradation, coming from the multi-layer structure and hence the suitable optical cavity design was needed. Storage lifetime of OLED increased in the stacked device because LC material helped to prevent the water and oxygen attack. Driving voltage of PDLC increased due to the insertion of passivation layer upon the electrode which was used protect the OLED and OPV underneath.

© 2013 IEEE

Tien-Lung Chiu, Wei-Fu Chang, Cheng-Che Wu, Chi-Feng Lin, Jiunn-Yih Lee, Shun-Wei Liu, Chin-Ti Chen, and Jiun-Haw Lee, "Tandem Organic Light-Emitting Diode and Organic Photovoltaic Device Inside Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Cell," J. Display Technol. 9, 787-793 (2013)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913 (1987).
  2. C. W. Tang, S. A. Vanslyke, C. H. Chen, "Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3610 (1989).
  3. C. L. Lin, C. C. Hung, P. Y. Kuo, M. H. Cheng, "New LTPS pixel circuit with AC driving method to reduce OLED degradation for 3D AMOLED displays," J. Display Technol. 8, 681-683 (2012).
  4. M. Yokoyama, C. M. Wu, S. H. Su, "Enhancing the efficiency and contrast ratio of white organic light-emitting diode using energy-recyclable photovoltaic cells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 032102 (2012).
  5. Y. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, W. Song, M. Meng, Z. H. Lu, W. Y. Kim, "High contrast green OLEDs using inorganic metal multilayer," Synth. Met. 161, 2211 (2011).
  6. S. Chen, J. Xie, Y. Yang, C. Chen, W. Huang, "High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with a Ni/ZnS/CuPc/Ni contrast-enhancing stack and a ZnS anti-reflection layer," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 365101 (2010).
  7. H. Cho, S. Yoo, "Polarizer-free, high-contrast inverted top-emitting organic light emitting diodes: Effect of the electrode structure," Opt. Express 20, 1816 (2012).
  8. T. L. Chiu, K. H. Chuang, C. F. Lin, Y. H. Ho, J. H. Lee, C. C. Chao, M. K. Leung, D. H. Wan, C. Y. Li, H. L. Chen, "Low reflection and photo-sensitive organic light-emitting device with perylene diimide and double-metal structure," Thin Solid Films 517, 3712-3716 (2009).
  9. S. W. Liu, C. F. Lin, C. C. Lee, W. C. Su, C. T. Chen, J. H. Lee, "High open-circuit voltage planar heterojunction organic photovoltaics exhibiting red electroluminescence," J. Electrochem. Soc. 159, H191 (2012).
  10. C. J. Yang, T. Y. Cho, C.-L. Lin, C. C. Wu, "Organic light-emitting devices integrated with solar cells: High contrast and energy recycling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007).
  11. T. Douseki, T. Yamada, J. Yamada, K. Ito, K. Nishi, "Photovoltaic display module in a mobile GPS," Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 67, 543 (2001).
  12. T. Nakamura, H. Hayashi, M. Fuchi, M. Tada, T. Imai, H. Nakamura, K. Shigehiro, S. Hirota, S. Maruyama, A. Saitoh, H. Kimura, "Display architecture suitable for multiple ambient light-sensor integration using LTPS technology," SID 08 Dig. (2008) pp. 720-723.
  13. S. H. Kim, E. B. Kim, H. Y. Choi, D. H. Kang, W. H. Park, J. H. Oh, E. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, D. H. Oh, K. H. Kim, M. H. Kang, J. H. Hur, J. Jang, J. W. Lee, J. R. Choi, S. H. Ahn, S. W. Hong, "A 2 inch a-Si:H TFT-LCD with backlight control TFT sensors," SID 07 Dig. (2007) pp. 1093-1096.
  14. H. Hayashi, T. Nakamura, N. Tada, T. Imai, M. Yoshida, H. Nakamura, "Optical sensor embedded input display usable under high-ambient-light conditions," SID 07 Dig. (2007) pp. 1105-1108.
  15. J. H. Lee, C. C. Liao, P. J. Hu, Y. Chang, "High contrast ratio organic light-emitting devices based on CuPC as electron transport material," Synth. Met. 144, 279 (2004).
  16. S. T. Wu, D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2001).
  17. C. T. Wang, T. H. Lin, "Bistable reflective polarizer-free optical switch based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal," Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1457 (2011).
  18. B. R. Yang, K. H. Liu, H. P. D. Shieh, "Emi-flective display device with attribute of high glare-free-ambient-contrast-ratio," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7418 (2007).
  19. J. H. Lee, X. Zhu, Y. H. Lin, W. K. Choi, T. C. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. Y. Lin, S. T. Wu, "High ambient-contrast-ratio display using tandem reflective liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting device," Opt. Exp. 13, 9431-9438 (2005).
  20. H. M. Zhang, W. C. H. Choy, Y. F. Dai, D. G. Ma, "The structural composite effect of Au-WO3-Al interconnecting electrode on performance of each unit in stacked OLEDs," Organ. Electron. 10, 402-407 (2009).
  21. S. W. Liu, C. C. Lee, K. Y. Wu, J. C. Huang, W. C. Su, C. F. Lin, C. T. Chen, Y. T. Tao, J. H. Lee, "Stamped self-assembled monolayers on electrode for connecting organic light-emitting diode and organic photovoltaic device," J. Display Technol. 7, 229 (2011).
  22. C. F. Lin, S. W. Liu, W. F. Hsu, M. Zhang, T. L. Chiu, Y. Wu, J. H. Lee, "Modification of silver anode and cathode for top-illuminated organic photovoltaic device," J. Phys. D, Appl. Phys. 43, 395101 (2010).
  23. C. C. Wu, C. F. Lin, J. H. Lee, W. F. Chang, T. L. Chiu, S. W. Liu, "Fully Integration of Transflective Hybrid Device Consisting of PSCT and In-cell OLED," SID 11 Dig. (2011) pp. 1602-1605.
  24. C. F. Lin, S. W. Liu, C. C. Lee, J. C. Huang, W. C. Su, T. L. Chiu, C. T. Chen, J. H. Lee, "Open-circuit voltage and efficiency improvement of subphthalocyanine-based organic photovoltaic device through deposition rate control," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 103, 69 (2012).
  25. P. Schilinsky, C. Waldauf, J. Hauch, C. J. Brabec, "Simulation of light intensity dependent current characteristics of polymer solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2816 (2004).
  26. J. H. Lee, K. Y. Chen, C. C. Hsiao, H. C. Chen, C. H. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, "Radiation simulations of top-emission organic light-emitting devices with two- and three-microcavity structures," J. Display Technol. 2, 130 (2006).
  27. C. H. Hsiao, Y. H. Chen, T. C. Lin, C. C. Hsiao, J. H. Lee, "Recombination zone in mixed-host organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163511 (2006).
  28. Z. D. Popovic, H. Aziz, "Reliability and degradation of small molecule-based organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs)," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 8, 362 (2002).
  29. H. C. Chen, J. H. Lee, C. C. Shiau, C. C. Yang, Y. W. Kiang, "Electromagnetic modeling of organic light-emitting devices," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2450 (2006).
  30. J. McElvain, H. Antoniadis, M. R. Hueschen, J. N. Miller, D. M. Roitman, J. R. Sheats, R. L. Moon, "Formation and growth of black spots in organic light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6002 (1996).
  31. C. D. Wang, W. C. H. Choy, "Efficient hole collection by introducing ultra-thin UV–ozone treated Au in polymer solar cells," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 904 (2011).
  32. Q. L. Song, M. L. Wang, E. G. Obbard, X. Y. Sun, X. M. Ding, X. Y. Hou, C. M. Li, "Degradation of small-molecule organic solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251118 (2006).
  33. S. W. Liu, C. C. Lee, C. F. Lin, J. C. Huang, C. T. Chen, J. H. Lee, "Degradation of small-molecule organic solar cells," J. Mater. Chem. 20, 7800 (2010).
  34. C. Y. Chang, F. Y. Tsai, "Efficient and air-stable plastics-based polymer solar cells enabled by atomic layer deposition," J. Mater. Chem. 21, 5710 (2011).
  35. H. K. Kim, S. W. Kim, D. G. Kim, J. W. Kang, M. S. Kim, W. J. Cho, "Thin film passivation of organic light emitting diodes by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition," Thin Solid Films 515, 4758 (2007).
  36. H. Ren, S. T. Wu, "Reflective reversed-mode polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light switches," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 797 (2002).
  37. Y. S. Ha, H. J. Kim, H. G. Park, D. S. Seo, "Enhancement of electro-optic properties in liquid crystal devices via titanium nanoparticle doping," Opt. Express 20, 6448 (2012).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited