OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Display Technology

Journal of Display Technology


  • Vol. 9, Iss. 4 — Apr. 1, 2013
  • pp: 285–291

Enhanced Light Output Power and Growth Mechanism of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Cone-Shaped SiO2 Patterned Template

Da-Wei Lin, Jhih-Kai Huang, Chia-Yu Lee, Ruey-Wen Chang, Yu-Pin Lan, Chien-Chung Lin, Kang-Yuan Lee, Chung-Hsiang Lin, Po-Tsung Lee, Gou-Chung Chi, and Hao-Chung Kuo

Journal of Display Technology, Vol. 9, Issue 4, pp. 285-291 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1858 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


In this study, we successfully transferred the patterns of a cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate (CPSS) into SiO2 layer to fabricate a cone-shaped SiO2 patterned template by using nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were grown on this template by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images suggest that the stacking faults formed near the cone-shaped SiO2 patterns during the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) can effectively suppress the threading dislocations, which results in an enhancement of internal quantum efficiency. The Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulation reveals that the light extraction efficiency of the LED grown on cone-shaped SiO2 patterned template can be enhanced as compared with the LED grown on CPSS. As a result, the light output power of the LED grown on cone-shaped SiO2 patterned template outperformed the LED grown on CPSS.

© 2012 IEEE

Da-Wei Lin, Jhih-Kai Huang, Chia-Yu Lee, Ruey-Wen Chang, Yu-Pin Lan, Chien-Chung Lin, Kang-Yuan Lee, Chung-Hsiang Lin, Po-Tsung Lee, Gou-Chung Chi, and Hao-Chung Kuo, "Enhanced Light Output Power and Growth Mechanism of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Cone-Shaped SiO2 Patterned Template," J. Display Technol. 9, 285-291 (2013)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Tamada, T. Taguchi, Kudo, "Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1N-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4906 (2003).
  2. T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, "GaN substrates—Progress, status, and prospects," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1041-1052 (2009).
  3. T. Paskova, D. A. Hanser, K. R. Evans, "GaN substrates for III-nitride devices," Proc. IEEE 97, 1324-1338 (2010).
  4. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulation-doped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 211 (1998).
  5. D. Kapolnek, S. Keller, R. Vetury, R. D. Underwood, P. Kozodoy, S. P. Den Baars, U. K. Mishra, "Anisotropic epitaxial lateral growth in GaN selective area epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1204 (1997).
  6. K. Linthicum, T. Gehrke, D. Thomson, E. Carlson, P. Rajagopal, T. Smith, D. Bachelor, R. Davis, "Pendeoepitaxy of gallium nitride thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 196 (1999).
  7. M. J. Kappers, R. Datta, R. A. Oliver, F. D. G. Rayment, M. E. Vickers, C. J. Humphreys, "Threading dislocation reduction in (0001) GaN thin films using SiNx interlayers," J. Cryst. Growth 300, 70-74 (2007).
  8. S. H. Park, "Crystal orientation effects on electronic properties of wurtzite InGaN/GaN quantum wells," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 9904 (2002).
  9. R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024001 (2012).
  10. D. A. Browne, E. C. Young, J. R. Lang, C. A. Hurni, J. S. Speck, "Indium and impurity incorporation in InGaN films on polar, nonpolar, and semipolar GaN orientations grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30, 041513 (2012).
  11. P. S. Hsu, M. T. Hardy, F. Wu, I. Koslow, E. C. Young, A. E. Romanov, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, "444.9 nm semipolar (11-22) laser diode grown on an intentionally stress relaxed InGaN waveguiding layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 021104 (2012).
  12. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Express 19, A991-A1007 (2011).
  13. H. Zhao, N. Tansu, "Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 107, 113110 (2010).
  14. J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110 (2011).
  15. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855 (2004).
  16. M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, I. K. Park, K. S. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, J. W. Kim, Y. C. Kim, "Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251110 (2008).
  17. K.-J. Byeon, J.-Y. Cho, J. Kim, H. Park, H. Lee, "Fabrication of SiNx-based photonic crystals on GaN-based LED devices with patterned sapphire substrate by nanoimprint lithography," Opt. Express 20, 11423 (2012).
  18. D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, R. H. Horng, "Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
  19. Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1152-1154 (2006).
  20. Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, K. M. Lau, "GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 327-332 (2004).
  21. X.-H. Huang, J.-P. Liu, J.-J. Kong, H. Yang, H.-B. Wang, "High-efficiency InGaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates," Opt. Express 19, A949-A955 (2011).
  22. H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, C. Y. Liu, "Pattern-coverage effect on light extraction efficiency of GaN LED on patterned-sapphire substrate," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15, H72-H74 (2012).
  23. Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1066-1072 (2009).
  24. Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, "Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire," J. Crys. Growth 312, 1311-1315 (2010).
  25. Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, "Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151102 (2011).
  26. W. Cao, J. M. Biser, Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, "Dislocation structure of GaN films grown on planar and nanopatterned sapphire," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 053505 (2011).
  27. C.-C. Kao, Y.-K. Su, C.-L. Lin, J.-J. Chen, "The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 023111 (2010).
  28. T. Shinagawa, Y. Abe, H. Matsumoto, B. Li, K. Murakami, N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, M. Kannaka, H. Fujii, "Light-emitting diodes fabricated on nanopatterned sapphire substrates by thermal lithography," Phys. Status Solidi C 7, 2165-2167 (2010).
  29. H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, G. Wang, "Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 014314 (2008).
  30. J.-H. Lee, D.-Y. Lee, B.-W. Oh, J.-H. Lee, "Comparison of InGaN-based LEDs grown on conventional sapphire and cone-shape-patterned sapphire substrate," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 157-163 (2010).
  31. M.-T. Wang, K.-Y. Liao, Y.-L. Li, "Growth mechanism and strain variation of GaN material grown on patterned sapphire substrates with various pattern designs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 962-964 (2011).
  32. D. W. Lin, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Lee, Y. Y. Yang, Z. Y. Li, W. C. Lai, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "GaN-based LEDs grown on HVPE growth high crystalline quality thick GaN template," J. Electrochem. Soc. 158, H1103-H1106 (2011).
  33. Y.-J. Lee, C.-H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-C. Wang, "Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1137-1143 (2009).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited