OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Display Technology

Journal of Display Technology

| A JOINT IEEE/OSA PUBLICATION

  • Vol. 9, Iss. 6 — Jun. 1, 2013
  • pp: 459–468

White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting

Yi-Lu Chang and Zheng-Hong Lu

Journal of Display Technology, Vol. 9, Issue 6, pp. 459-468 (2013)


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1288 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations
  • Export Citation/Save Click for help

Abstract

Lighting consumes a significant amount of generated electrical power in developing countries, and it uses over 20% of the energy supplied in developed countries. Therefore, semiconductor-based light sources with high energy efficiencies are critical technologies for the reduction of global carbon footprint. As an emerging lighting technology, organic light-emitting diode (OLED) has received huge worldwide attention in recent years, partially driven by its success in the flat-panel display market and partially driven by its technology virtues such as an unique thin, flat, foldable form factor. In this review, we will provide an overview on the current status of OLEDs for lighting applications. Specifically, a detailed overview of the state-of-the-art white OLED design concepts including their working principles will be presented. A brief overview on the current status of out-coupling techniques suitable for white OLEDs will also be discussed.

© 2013 IEEE

Citation
Yi-Lu Chang and Zheng-Hong Lu, "White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting," J. Display Technol. 9, 459-468 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jdt/abstract.cfm?URI=jdt-9-6-459


Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. Y.-L. Chang, "Highly efficient warm white organic light-emitting diodes by triplet exciton conversion," Adv. Funct. Mater. 23, 705-712 (2013).
  2. M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, K. Meerholz, "White organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 23, 233-248 (2011).
  3. S. O. Jeon, S. E. Jang, H. S. Son, J. Y. Lee, "External quantum efficiency above 20% in deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 23, 1436-1441 (2011).
  4. H. Kanno, R. Holmes, Y. Sun, S. Kena-Cohen, S. Forrest, "White stacked electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices employing MoO3 as a charge-generation layer," Adv. Mater. 18, 339-342 (2006).
  5. J. Kido, M. Kimura, K. Nagai, "Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device," Science 267, 1332-1334 (1995).
  6. M. A. Baldo, "Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices," Nature 395, 151-154 (1998).
  7. S. Reineke, "White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency," Nature 459, 234-238 (2009).
  8. H. Sasabe, "High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex," Adv. Mater. 22, 5003-5007 (2010).
  9. G. Schwartz, M. Pfeiffer, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, K. Leo, "Harvesting triplet excitons from fluorescent blue emitters in white organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 19, 3672-3676 (2007).
  10. Y. Sun, "Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices," Nature 440, 908-912 (2006).
  11. C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987).
  12. L. Xiao, "Recent progresses on materials for electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 23, 926-952 (2011).
  13. B. D'Andrade, R. Holmes, S. Forrest, "Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white light-emitting device with a triple doped emissive layer," Adv. Mater. 16, 624-628 (2004).
  14. S. Lamansky, "Highly phosphorescent bis-cyclometalated iridium complexes: Synthesis photophysical characterization and use in organic light emitting diodes," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 4304-4312 (2001).
  15. Z. B. Wang, "Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic," Nature Photon. 5, 753-757 (2011).
  16. G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, T. C. Rosenow, K. Walzer, K. Leo, "Triplet harvesting in hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 1319-1333 (2009).
  17. Y.-L. Chang, "Highly efficient greenish-yellow phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes based on interzone exciton transfer," Adv. Funct. Mater. (2013) published online DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202944.
  18. S. Gong, "Bipolar tetraarylsilanes as universal hosts for blue, green, orange, and white electrophosphorescence with high efficiency and low efficiency roll-off," Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 1168-1178 (2011).
  19. D. H. Kim, "Highly efficient red phosphorescent dopants in organic light-emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 23, 2721-2726 (2011).
  20. R. Meerheim, "Influence of charge balance and exciton distribution on efficiency and lifetime of phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 014510-1-014510-8 (2008).
  21. S. Su, C. Cai, J. Kido, "RGB phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by using host materials with heterocyclic cores: Effect of nitrogen atom orientations," Chem. Mater. 23, 274-284 (2011).
  22. R. Wang, "Highly efficient orange and white organic light-emitting diodes based on new orange iridium complexes," Adv. Mater. 23, 2823-2827 (2011).
  23. S. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, J. Kido, "Highly efficient organic blue-and white light-emitting devices having a carrier- and exciton-confining structure for reduced efficiency roll-off," Adv. Mater. 20, 4189-4194 (2008).
  24. J. Y. Tsao, III-Nitride Based Lighting Emitting Diodes and Applications (Springer, 2013).
  25. "International lighting vocabulary," (1987) CIE 17.4, item 845-02-59..
  26. "Rendering properties of light sources rendering properties of light sources," (1995) CIE 13.3..
  27. A. Chaskar, H. Chen, K. Wong, "Bipolar host materials: A chemical approach for highly efficient electrophosphorescent devices," Adv. Mater. 23, 3876-3895 (2011).
  28. Y. Kawamura, H. Sasabe, C. Adachi, "Simple accurate system for measuring absolute photoluminescence quantum efficiency in organic solid-state thin films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 7729-7730 (2004).
  29. T. Förster, "Transfer mechanisms of electronic excitation," Discus. Faraday Soc. 27, 7-17 (1959) 10th Spiers Memorial Lecture..
  30. G. D. Scholes, "Long-range resonance energy transfer in molecular systems," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54, 57-87 (2003).
  31. D. Guo, T. E. Knight, J. K. McCusker, "Angular momentum conservation in dipolar energy transfer," Science 334, 1684-1687 (2011).
  32. S.-H. Eom, "White phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with dual triple-doped emissive layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 53303-1-53303-3 (2009).
  33. B. Zhang, "High-efficiency single emissive layer white organic light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed dendritic host and new orange-emitting iridium complex," Adv. Mater. 24, 1873-1877 (2012).
  34. J. Jou, "Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode," Org. Electron. 12, 865-868 (2011).
  35. X. Qi, M. Slootsky, S. Forrest, "Stacked white organic light emitting devices consisting of separate red, green, and blue elements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 193306-1-193306-3 (2008).
  36. T. Lee, "High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043301-1-043301-3 (2008).
  37. S. Chen, G. Tan, W. Wong, H. Kwok, "White organic light-emitting diodes with evenly separated red, green, and blue colors for efficiency/color-rendition trade-off optimization," Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 3785-3793 (2011).
  38. Q. Wang, "Manipulating charges and excitons within a single-host system to accomplish efficiency/CRI/color-stability trade-off for high-performance OWLEDs," Adv. Mater. 21, 2397-2401 (2009).
  39. Y. Zhao, J. Chen, D. Ma, "Realization of high efficiency orange and white organic light-emitting diodes by introducing an ultra-thin undoped orange emitting layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 163303-1-163303-3 (2011).
  40. R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, "Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253305-1-253305-3 (2010).
  41. A. Dodabalapur, "Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954-1-6954-12 (1996).
  42. M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, K. Leo, "Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 083303-1-083303-3 (2009).
  43. K. Hong, "Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting diodes: Spontaneously formed nanofacet-structured MgO as a refractive index modulation layer," Adv. Mater. 22, 4890-4894 (2010).
  44. H. Cho, C. Yun, S. Yoo, "Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: Tuning its optical characteristics," Opt. Exp. 18, 3404-3414 (2010).
  45. J. W. Huh, "Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layers," Org. Electron. 13, 1386-1391 (2012).
  46. B. Riedel, "Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 243302-1-243302-3 (2010).
  47. J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, M. D. McGehee, "Extracting light form polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped bragg gratings," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451-456 (2004).
  48. K. Ishihara, "Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111114-1-111114-3 (2007).
  49. S. M. Jeong, "Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083307-1-083307-3 (2008).
  50. S. M. Jeong, "Enhancement of light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional hexagonally nanoimprinted periodic structures using sequential surface relief grating," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4566-4571 (2008).
  51. Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, "Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids," Nature Photon. 2, 483-487 (2008).
  52. W. H. Koo, "Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles," Nature Photon. 4, 222-226 (2010).
  53. W. H. Koo, "Polarization conversion in surface-plasmon-coupled emission from organic light-emitting diodes using spontaneously formed buckles," Adv. Mater. 23, 1003-1007 (2011).
  54. Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, "Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073106-1-073106-6 (2006).
  55. J. P. Yang, "Light out-coupling enhancement of organic light-emitting devices with microlens array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 223303-1-223303-3 (2010).
  56. S.-H. Eom, E. Wrzesniewski, J. Xue, "Close-packed hemispherical microlens arrays for light extraction enhancement in organic light-emitting devices," Org. Electron. 12, 472-476 (2011).
  57. I. L. Azevedo, M. G. Morgan, F. Morgan, "The transition to solid-state lighting," Proc. IEEE 97, 481-510 (2009).
  58. J. M. Phillips, "Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting," Laser & Photon. Rev. 1, 307-333 (2007).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited