Raman amplification has enabled dramatic increases in the reach and capacity of lightwave systems. This tutorial explains why, starting with the fundamental properties of gain from stimulated Raman scattering. Next,noise accumulation from amplified spontaneous emission is reviewed, and the merits of distributing Raman gain along a transmission fiber are explained. Other sources of noise that are particularly relevant for Raman amplifiers are summarized. Finally, novel Raman pumping schemes that have recently been developed are highlighted.
© 2004 IEEE
Jake Bromage, "Raman Amplification for Fiber Communications Systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 79- (2004)