This paper describes the use of an InGaAs-InP photoheterojunction bipolar transistor (photo-HBT) for millimeter-wave generation and digital modulation. Optical mixing of two coherent signals generates the carrier,and a digital drive signal to the base is used for the modulation. We describe an advanced large signal model of the photo-HBT that takes into account distributed effects at high frequencies and all noise sources, including optical amplifier noise and noise correlations due to the high operation frequency and the nonlinear mixing processes. The model enables one to predict carrier-to-noise ratio dependence on frequency, optical power, and the transistor operating point. Frequency-and time-domain responses of the modulated millimeter-wave carrier and bit error rates are also calculated. Experiments at 10 and 45 GHz with modulation rates ranging between 50 Mb/s and 2.5 Gb/s were performed, and a superb fit to the calculated responses is found.
Alberto Bilenca, Jacob Lasri, Benny Sheinman, Gadi Eisenstein, and Dan Ritter, "Millimeter-Wave Generation and Digital Modulation in an InGaAs-InP Heterojunction Phototransistor:Model and Experimental Characterization of Dynamics and Noise," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1340- (2001)