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Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology


  • Vol. 25, Iss. 9 — Sep. 1, 2007
  • pp: 2675–2692

Feedforward Carrier Recovery for Coherent Optical Communications

Ezra Ip and Joseph M. Kahn

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 25, Issue 9, pp. 2675-2692 (2007)

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We study a carrier-synchronization scheme for coherent optical communications that uses a feedforward architecture that can be implemented in digital hardware without a phase-locked loop. We derive the equations for maximum a posteriori joint detection of the transmitted symbols and the carrier phase. The result is a multidimensional optimization problem that we approximate with a two-stage iterative algorithm: The first stage is a symbol-by-symbol soft detector of the carrier phase, and the second stage is a hard-decision phase estimator that uses prior and subsequent soft-phase decisions to obtain a minimum mean-square-error phase estimate by exploiting the temporal correlation in the phase-noise process. The received symbols are then derotated by the hard-decision phase estimates, and maximum-likelihood sequence detection of the symbols follows. As each component in the carrier-recovery unit can be separately optimized, the resulting system is highly flexible. We show that the optimum hard-decision phase estimator is a linear filter whose impulse response consists of a causal and an anticausal exponential sequence, which we can truncate and implement as an finite-impulse-response filter. We derive equations for the phase-error variance and the system bit-error ratio (BER). Our results show that 4, 8, and 16 quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) transmissions at 1 dB above sensitivity for BER=10-3 is possible with laser beat linewidths of ΔνTb=1.3×10-4, 1.3 x 10-4, and 1.5 x 10-5 when a decision-directed soft-decision phase estimator is employed.

© 2007 IEEE

Ezra Ip and Joseph M. Kahn, "Feedforward Carrier Recovery for Coherent Optical Communications," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2675-2692 (2007)

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