OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology


  • Vol. 30, Iss. 16 — Aug. 15, 2012
  • pp: 2574–2582

Complete Fiber Bragg Grating Characterization Using an Alternative Method Based on Spectral Interferometry and Minimum- Phase Reconstruction Algorithms

Alejandro Carballar and Carlos L. Janer

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 30, Issue 16, pp. 2574-2582 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1530 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


We present an alternative method for the complete characterization of linear passive optical devices using the measurement of the spectral power density of an intermediate interferometric transfer function. Important advantages of this method compared to other published methods are the simplicity of the interferometric setup and the fact that iterative algorithms are not required. This method makes use of spectral interferometry to implement an intermediate transfer function which is mathematically related to the optical device transfer function and whose phase response is proven to be minimum. This last fact permits the unique retrieval of the phase response from the magnitude response using the Hilbert transform (in particular, minimum-phase reconstruction algorithms). Therefore, the whole intermediate transfer function (amplitude and phase responses) can be obtained using only power measurements. Once the intermediate interferometric function has been fully established, the complete optical device transfer function is reconstructed by inverting the mathematical relation between them. We have applied the proposed method to the characterization of fiber Bragg gratings, obtaining results that are in close agreement with the original transfer functions.

© 2012 IEEE

Alejandro Carballar and Carlos L. Janer, "Complete Fiber Bragg Grating Characterization Using an Alternative Method Based on Spectral Interferometry and Minimum- Phase Reconstruction Algorithms," J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2574-2582 (2012)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement," Nature Photon. 4, 248-254 (2010).
  2. D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photon. 1, 709-716 (2007).
  3. I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, N. R. Newbury, "Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range," Nature Photon. 3, 351-356 (2009).
  4. E. Wolf, "Determination of the amplitude and the phase of scattered fields by holography," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 60, 18-20 (1970).
  5. P. Jaquinot, "New developments in interference spectroscopy," Rep. Prog. Phys. 23, 267-312 (1960).
  6. R. C. Youngquist, S. Carr, D. E. N. Davies, "Optical coherence-domain reflectometry: A new optical evaluation technique," Opt. Lett. 12, 158-160 (1987).
  7. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
  8. M. Takeda, H. Ina, S. Kobayashi, "Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 72, 156-160 (1982).
  9. U. Glombitza, E. Brinkmeyer, "Coherent frequency-domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated-optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1377-1384 (1993).
  10. L. Lepetit, G. Chériaux, M. Joffre, "Linear techniques of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 12, 2467-2474 (1995).
  11. M. M. Ohn, S. Y. Huang, S. Sandgren, R. Measures, T. Alavie, "Measurement of fiber grating properties using an interferometric and Fourier-transform-based technique," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (1997) pp. 154-155.
  12. M. Froggatt, T. Erdogan, J. Moore, S. Shenk, "Optical frequency domain characterization (OFDC) of dispersion in optical fiber Bragg gratings," presented at the Proc. Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides StuartFL Paper BC2.
  13. C. Iaconis, I. A. Walmsley, "Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses," Opt. Lett. 23, 792-794 (1998).
  14. J. B. Soller, D. K. Gifford, M. S. Wolfe, M. E. Froggatt, "High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies," Opt. Exp. 13, 666-674 (2005).
  15. M. A. Muriel, A. Carballar, "Phase reconstruction from reflectivity in uniform fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 22, 93-95 (1997).
  16. A. Carballar, M. A. Muriel, "Phase reconstruction from reflectivity in fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1314-1322 (1997).
  17. L. Poladian, "Group-delay reconstruction for fiber Bragg gratings in reflection and transmission," Opt. Lett. 22, 1571-1573 (1997).
  18. J. Skaar, H. E. Engan, "Phase reconstruction from reflectivity in fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 24, 136-138 (1999).
  19. A. Mecozzi, "Retrieving the full optical response from amplitude data by Hilbert transform," Opt. Commun. 282, 4183-4187 (2009).
  20. A. V. Oppenheim, R. W. Schafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing (Prentice-Hall, 1989).
  21. J. Skaar, "Measuring the group delay of fiber Bragg gratings by use of end-reflection interference," Opt. Lett. 24, 1020-1022 (1999).
  22. M. Froggatt, "Distributed measurement of the complex modulation of a photoinduced Bragg grating in an optical fiber," Appl. Opt. 35, 5162-5164 (1996).
  23. A. Ozcan, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, "Characterization of fiber Bragg gratings using spectral interferometry based on minimum-phase functions," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1739-1757 (2006).
  24. A. Ozcan, M. J. F. Digonnet, L. Lablonde, D. Pureur, G. S. Kino, "A new iterative technique to characterize and design transmission fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1913-1921 (2006).
  25. J. W. Brown, R. V. Churchill, Complex Variables and Applications (McGraw-Hill, 1996).
  26. L. Mandel, E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995).
  27. M. A. Fiddy, Image Recovery: Theory and Application (Academic, 1987).
  28. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, 1999).
  29. R. Feced, M. Zervas, "Effects of random phase and amplitude errors in optical fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 90-101 (2000).
  30. M. A. Muriel, A. Carballar, J. Azaña, "Field distributions inside fiber gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 548-558 (1999).
  31. S. V. Vaseghi, Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction (Wiley, 2009).
  32. D. K. Gifford, B. J. Soller, M. S. Wolfe, M. E. Froggatt, "Optical vector network analyzer for single-scan measurements of loss, group delay, and polarization mode dispersion," Appl. Opt. 44, 7282-7286 (2005).
  33. B. J. Eggleton, G. Lenz, N. Litchinitser, D. B. Patterson, R. E. Slusher, "Implications of fiber grating dispersion for WDM communications systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1403-1405 (1997).
  34. F. Li, Y. Park, J. Azaña, "Group delay characterization of dispersive devices using a pulse temporal intensity measurement setup," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2042-2044 (2008).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited