A digital decision-directed phase-locked loop (PLL) for use in optical pulse code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems based on coherent correlation demodulation is proposed. PLL performance is affected by multiuser interference, laser phase noise and optical shot noise. The effect of these sources of interference and noise on PLL performance is evaluated based on a nonlinear model (the Fokker-Planck method) since a linear analysis yields large deviations between the analytical results and actual performance at low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR's). After describing the implementation of the PLL, the steady-state probability density function (pdf) of the phase estimator is derived. Numerical evaluation of the variance of the phase estimator is given for Gold codes. The linewidth requirements of the laser for an acceptable phase estimator variance and the value of the optimal loop bandwidth minimizing the impact of the interference and noise on the PLL are discussed.
Wei Huang, Ivan Andonovic, and Moshe Tur, "Decision-Directed PLL for Coherent Optical Pulse CDMA Systems in the Presence of Multiuser Interference, Laser Phase Noise, and Shot Noise," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1786- (1998)