Fabrication process of efficient Yb3+ : Er3+ codoped phosphosilicate fibers by modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) combined with the solution doping technique is studied in details. We show that the process can be adapted to incorporate low viscosity phosphate glass and some important issues in the fabrication process are discussed. These include the sensitive presintering pass. We also report on the fabrication of a low loss all-glass double clad Yb3+ : Er3+ codoped fiber. We explain how we evaluate the fibers and discuss the effect of the ytterbium to erbium concentration ratio on the laser characteristics. Finally, we present results of some investigations into the mechanisms which can affect the efficiency of the lasers, and show that the detrimental up-conversion from the metastable level of the erbium ions is dramatically reduced by the presence of the ytterbium ions.
Guillaume G. Vienne, Julie E. Caplen, Liang Dong, John D. Minelly, Johan Nilsson, and David N. Payne, "Fabrication and Characterization of Yb3+ : Er3+ Phosphosilicate Fibers for Lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1990- (1998)