New structures for efficient coupling of light from an antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW) to integrated photodiode are proposed and analyzed. Both end-fire and leaky-wave types of coupling have been considered and it is found that high-coupling efficiencies can be achieved by exploiting the intrinsic properties of the ARROW structure without requiring additional non-IC compatible materials. The coupling structures were simulated using a simple ray optics model as well as the beam propagation method (BPM). Fabrication process conditions and measurement results for various coupling structures are presented.
K. Benaissa, A. Nathan, S. T. Chu, and W. Huang, "IC Compatible Optical Coupling Techniques for Integration of Arrow with Photodetector," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1423- (1998)