This paper presents a tapered polymer waveguide structure for coupling light between optical waveguides with differing geometries. Optical fibers, lasers, and other photonic integrated circuit components can be coupled with tapered waveguides. The polymer waveguide performs a mode transformation between different mode shapes and sizes. For example, the mode transformation can be from an elliptical laser diode mode to that of a circular optical fiber mode. The input and output of a tapered waveguide structure are analyzed, for the case of laser to fiber coupling, in order to determine the effect of misalignments on the coupling efficiency. Adiabaticity in waveguide propagation is discussed. The fabrication of our polymer waveguides is also described.
Regis S. Fan and R. Brian Hooker, "Tapered Polymer Single-Mode Waveguides for Mode Transformation," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 466- (1999)