In wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), transmitters require stringent and complex frequency control loops to avoid wavelength drifts due to temperature fluctuations. This makes the transmitters heavy, bulky, and inappropriate for local- and short-haul communications networks, as well as for manufacturing locales and other open areas where temperature control is not feasible. We propose and analyze a technique we call robust fast frequency hopping code division multiple access (FFH-CDMA), particularly suitable for severe, hostile, noncontrollable environments. This approach avoids all conditioning and frequency stabilization loops in the transmission end. We develop a modified version of extended hyperbolic congruence codes to achieve environment-resistant codes. We present expressions for the auto- and cross-correlation functions for optical implementation of the codes. We simulate the encoding/decoding operations with parameters from real Bragg gratings. We evaluate probability of error for a single user and as an average over all users versus capacity (the number of simultaneous users). Robust FFH-CDMA is an efficient access technique for hostile environments. It avoids the frequency and temperature control problems of WDM and nonrobust FFH-CDMA - at the cost of lower overall capacity in terms of number of simultaneous users.
Habib Fathallah and Leslie A. Rusch, "Robust Optical FFH-CDMA Communications: Coding in Place of Frequency and Temperature Controls," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1284- (1999)