Bragg gratings in optical fibers in multimode propagation are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Bragg gratings formed in optical fibers in multimode propagation show multiple reflection peaks or multiple transmission dips in the reflection or transmission spectra, respectively. For standard graded-index multimode fiber, the number of reflection peaks of a Bragg grating depends on excitation condition of propagating modes. The number of reflection peaks of a Bragg grating at around 1.55 m is 19 for highly multimode excitation and 3-4 for lower order mode excitation. We analyze the phase-matching conditions of the propagating modes and identify half of the reflection peaks as the reflection to the same mode and the rest as the reflection to the neighboring modes. In dispersion-shifted fiber, a Bragg grating at around 0.8 m in three-mode propagation shows three reflection peaks in the reflection spectrum. The temperature dependence of each reflection peak is similar to that of a conventional Bragg grating in single-mode fiber. Polarization dependence measured on a Bragg grating in multimode graded-index fiber is negligible. An advantage of Bragg gratings in multimode fiber (MMF) and the applications are discussed.
Toru Mizunami, Tzvetanka V. Djambova, Tsutomu Niiho, and Sanjay Gupta, "Bragg Gratings in Multimode and Few-Mode Optical Fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 230- (2000)