The spectral response of the arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) plays an important role in optical networks. Ideally, the grating should have a rectangular transfer function to reduce the need for accurate wavelength control and achieve low crosstalk. In this paper, a new technique for designing an AWG with flat spectral response is presented. The problem of the optimization of the transfer function is reduced to that of adjusting the arrayed waveguide lengths and their relative positions on the edge of the free propagating regions in order to minimize a certain error function. As a result, the waveguide lengths and their positions are determined using a rigorous mathematical procedure. The resultant transfer function is flat with low sidelobes.
Thomas Kamalakis and Thomas Sphicopoulos, "An Efficient Technique for the Design of an Arrayed-Waveguide Grating With Flat Spectral Response," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1716- (2001)