The fiber alignment shifts of fiber-solder-ferrule (FSF) joints in laser module packaging under temperature cycle testing using PbSn and AuSn solders are studied experimentally and numerically. The measured results showed that the fiber shifts of FSF joints with the hard AuSn solder exhibited shifts two times less than that with the soft PbSn solder. This suggests that the hard solder may be more suitable for FSF assembly than the soft solder. The results also showed that fiber shifts increased as the temperature cycle number and the initial fiber eccentric offset increased. The experimental measurements of fiber shifts were in good agreement with the numerical calculations of the finite-element method analysis. The major fiber shift formation mechanisms of FSF joints in temperature cycling may come from the localized plastic solder yielding introduced by the local thermal stress variation, the redistribution of the residual stresses, and the stress relaxation of the creep deformation within the solder. Furthermore, the stress relaxation of creep deformation in solder with either 21% (PbSn solder) or 5% (AuSn solder) may have significant influence on the fiber shifts. This study has provided an optimum approach for reduction of the fiber alignment shift of FSF joints in laser module packaging under temperature cycle testing, which is to solder the fiber near to the center of the ferrule and to select the AuSn hard solder.
Wood-Hi Cheng, Maw-Tyan Sheen, Gow-Ling Wang, Szu-Chun Wang, and Jao-Hwa Kuang, "Fiber Alignment Shift Formation Mechanisms of Fiber-Solder-Ferrule Joints in Laser Module Packaging," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1177- (2001)