OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology


  • Vol. 20, Iss. 6 — Jun. 1, 2002
  • pp: 953–

Probability Density Function of Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) in Optical Transmission System Composed of Passive Devices and Connecting Fibers

Youichi Fukada

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 20, Issue 6, pp. 953- (2002)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (257 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


This paper presents a probability density function formula for predicting the polarization dependent loss (PDL) in an optical transmission system composed of passive devices and connecting fibers. A new calculation technique, which enables the probability density function formula to be obtained theoretically, is used instead of the most complicated part of the Muller-matrix or Jones-matrix calculations, which has been thought to be necessary for analyzing PDL. This technique involves calculation of the transmission coefficients of the transmission system and its devices from their PDLs. In the theoretical development, the central limit theorem is used as the sole approximation. A Monte Carlo numerical simulation was done to verify the validity of the analytical theory. Very good agreement between simulation and analytical theory is obtained when the number of devices having PDL is four or more. An experiment also demonstrated the validity of the analytical theory. The theory can also explain some phenomena that occur in systems composed of optical amplifiers,even though it had originally been developed to explain PDL-related phenomena in systems composed of passive devices only.


Youichi Fukada, "Probability Density Function of Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) in Optical Transmission System Composed of Passive Devices and Connecting Fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 953- (2002)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset


  1. E. Lichtman, "Limitations imposed by polarization-dependent gain and loss on all-optical ultralong communication systems", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 906-913, May 1995.
  2. G. J. Foschini and C. D. Poole, "Statistical theory of polarization dispersion in single mode fibers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 1439-1456, Nov. 1991.
  3. A. El Amari, N. Gisin, B. Perny, H. Zbinden and C. W. Zimmer, "Statistical prediction and experimental verification of concatenations of fiber optic components with polarization dependent loss", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 332-339, Mar. 1998.

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited