An improved analytical expression of the multiple path interference (MPI) induced by double Rayleigh scattered signal in fiber Raman amplifiers (FRAs), valid both for lumped and distributed FRAs, is derived with a small signal model. The expression is validated both by comparison with an exact solution and by MPI measurements on four different lumped and distributed Raman amplifiers.
© 2003 IEEE
Paola Parolari, Lucia Marazzi, Lorenzo Bernardini, and Mario Martinelli, "Double Rayleigh Scattering Noise in Lumped and Distributed Raman Amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2224- (2003)