OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology


  • Vol. 21, Iss. 10 — Oct. 1, 2003
  • pp: 2305–

Optimizing Imbalance and Loss in 2 × 2 3-dB Multimode Interference Couplers via Access Waveguide Width

Martin T. Hill, X. J. M. Leijtens, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 21, Issue 10, pp. 2305- (2003)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (295 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


The imbalance and excess loss in multimode interference couplers with fabrication errors are examined. Remarkably, there exists a number of optimum access waveguide widths which give a minimum imbalance. Furthermore,quite low excess loss can be simultaneously achieved by choosing one particular optimum width. It is also shown that paired interference couplers have better imbalance performance than general interference couplers, given the same fabrication tolerances and length constraint for both coupler types. In particular, a paired interference coupler with an access waveguide width approximately 0.3 times the coupler width has the best imbalance performance. These results are obtained using a simple model and are supported by more sophisticated numerical models and experimental data from couplers fabricated in InP/InGaAsP.

© 2003 IEEE

Martin T. Hill, X. J. M. Leijtens, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "Optimizing Imbalance and Loss in 2 × 2 3-dB Multimode Interference Couplers via Access Waveguide Width," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2305- (2003)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset


  1. L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 615-627, Apr. 1995.
  2. P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano and M. K. Smit, "Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 12, pp. 1004-1009, June 1994.
  3. D. H. P. Maat, Y. C. Zhu, F. H. Groen, H. van Brug, H. J. Frankena and X. J. M. Leijtens, "Polarization independent dilated InP-based space switch with low crosstalk", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 284-286, Mar. 2000.
  4. M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse and H. Melchior, "General self-imaging properties in N × N multimode interference couplers", Appl. Opt., vol. 33, no. 18, pp. 3905-3911, June 1994.
  5. X. J. M. Leijtens, P. Le Lourec and M. K. Smit, "S-matrix oriented CAD-tool for simulating complex integrated optical circuits", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 2, pp. 257-262, June 1996.
  6. T. Tamir, Ed. Guided-Wave Optoelectronics, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1988, ch. 2, pp. 69-74.
  7. L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman and M. K. Smit, "Extremely small multimode interference couplers and ultrashort bends on InP by deep etching", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 1008-1010, Aug. 1994.
  8. D. Erasme, L. H. Spiekman, C. G. P. Herben, M. K. Smit and F. H. Groen, "Experimental assessment of the reflection of passive multimode interference couplers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1604-1606, Dec. 1997.
  9. M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse and H. Melchior, "Overlapping-image multimode interference couplers with a reduced number of self-images for uniform and nonuniform power splitting", Appl. Opt., vol. 34, no. 30, pp. 6898-6908, Oct. 1995.

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited