OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology

| A JOINT IEEE/OSA PUBLICATION

  • Vol. 22, Iss. 2 — Feb. 1, 2004
  • pp: 401–

Repetition Rate Requirements for Time-Division Multiplexed Raman Pumping

Peter J. Winzer, Jake Bromage, Richard T. Kane, Peter A. Sammer, and Clifford Headley

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp. 401- (2004)


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (333 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations
  • Export Citation/Save Click for help

Abstract

We quantify both theoretically and experimentally the speed requirements for tuning or switching the wavelength of Raman pumps in time-division multiplexed (TDM) pumping schemes. Our results indicate that a periodic sweep-pattern has to be repeated at a rate above 10 kHz to achieve a temporal Raman gain variation of less than 1 dB at an average on/off Raman gain of 15 dB in 100 km of transmission fiber. At a 10-kHz rate, the sensitivity penalty of an optically preamplified receiver following the 100-km TDM Raman span was measured to be 0.5 dB. Expressed in terms of pump laser tuning requirements, this translates into a switching time of 100 ns, requiring a modulation bandwidth of ~10 MHz. When cascading multiple TDM Raman pumped transmission spans, we calculate that the worst-case temporal dB-gain variation scales linearly with the number of spans. At a repetition rate of 50 kHz and when cascading 10 spans, we predict an additional 1 dB of margin needs to be allocated in the system's power budget.

© 2004 IEEE

Citation
Peter J. Winzer, Jake Bromage, Richard T. Kane, Peter A. Sammer, and Clifford Headley, "Repetition Rate Requirements for Time-Division Multiplexed Raman Pumping," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 401- (2004)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jlt/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-22-2-401


Sort:  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. K. Rottwitt and H. D. Kidorf, "A 92 nm bandwidth Raman amplifier", in Proc. OFC'97, 1997, paper PD6-1.
  2. Y. Emori, K. Tanaka and S. Namiki, "100 nm bandwidth flat-gain Raman amplifiers", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 1355-1356, 1999.
  3. V. E. Perlin and H. G. Winful, "Optimal design of flat-gain wide-band fiber Raman amplifiers", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, pp. 250-254, 2002.
  4. H. Matsuda, K. I. Suzuki, S. Kawai and K. Aida, "Ultra-wideband optical amplification with 3 dB bandwidth of 65 nm using a gain-equalised two-stage erbium-doped fiber amplifier and Raman amplification", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 753-754, 1997.
  5. H. S. Seo, K. Oh and U. C. Paek, "Simultaneous amplification and channel equalization using Raman amplifier for 30 channels in 1.3 µ m band", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, pp. 391-397, 2001.
  6. P. M. Krummrich, R. E. Neuhauser and C. Glingener, "Bandwidth limitations of broadband distributed Raman fiber amplifiers for WDM systems", in Proc. OFC'01, 2001, paper MI13.
  7. H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma and E. Rabarijaona, "Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier", Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 530-532, 1999.
  8. R. E. Neuhauser, P. M. Krummrich, H. Bock and C. Glingener, "Impact of nonlinear pump interactions on broadband distributed Raman amplification", in Proc. OFC'01, 2001, paper MA4.
  9. L. F. Mollenauer, A. R. Grant and P. V. Mamyshev, "Time-division multiplexing of pump wavelengths to achieve ultrabroadband, flat, backward-pumped Raman", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 592-594, 2002.
  10. C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, N. Jolley and R. J. Mears, "Novel ultra-broadband high performance distributed Raman amplifier employing pump modulation", in Proc. OFC'02, 2002, paper WB4.
  11. P. J. Winzer, K. Sherman and M. Zirngibl, "Time-division multiplexed Raman pump experiment using a tunable C-band laser", Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 789-791, 2002.
  12. P. J. Winzer, J. Bromage, R. T. Kane, P. A. Sammer and C. Headley, "Tuning speed requirements for time-division multiplexed Raman pump lasers", in Proc. ECOC'02, 2002, paper 4.1.4.
  13. J. Nicholson, J. Fini, J. Bouteiller, J. Bromage and K. Brar, "A swept-wavelength Raman pump with 69 MHz repetition rate", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC'03), 2003, PD46.
  14. S. G. Grubb, T. Strasser, W. Y. Cheung, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrachi, T. Erdogan, P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar and D. J. DiGiovanni, "High-power 1.48 µ m cascaded Raman laser in germanosilicate fibers", in Proc. OAA'95, 1995, Paper SA4.
  15. S. Namiki and Y. Emori, "Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 7, pp. 3-16, 2001.
  16. R. G. Smith, "Optical power handling capacity of low loss optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering", Appl. Opt., vol. 11, pp. 2489-2494, 1972.
  17. C. Martinelli, V. Jolivet, J.-L. Moncelet, D. Mongardien and D. Bayart, "Operating conditions for profitable time division multiplexing of the Raman pumps", in Proc. ECOC'03, 2003, pp. 350-351.

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited