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Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology


  • Vol. 22, Iss. 2 — Feb. 1, 2004
  • pp: 448–

Narrow-Band Measurement of Differential Group Delay by a Six-State RF Phase-Shift Technique: 40 fs Single-Measurement Uncertainty

P. A. Williams and J. D. Kofler

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp. 448- (2004)

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We describe in detail our implementation of a modulation phase shift (MPS) technique for narrow-bandwidth measurement of differential group delay (DGD) and the principal states of polarization (PSP) in optical fibers and components. Our MPS technique involves launching six orthogonal polarization states (as opposed to the four states typically launched) to achieve improved measurement stability. The measurement bandwidth is 4.92 GHz (twice the 2.46 GHz RF modulation frequency), the measurement time is 13 s per point, and the single-measurement uncertainty is better than 40 fs (~ 95% confidence interval) for DGD values from 10 to 1000 fs. We demonstrate that this uncertainty can be greatly improved by averaging,yielding a 9.7 fs uncertainty (95% confidence interval) on a device with 315 fs of DGD. Sources of uncertainty are detailed, including a DGD contribution from the detector itself. Simulations illustrate the uncertainty contribution of multiple DGD elements in series.

© 2004 IEEE

P. A. Williams and J. D. Kofler, "Narrow-Band Measurement of Differential Group Delay by a Six-State RF Phase-Shift Technique: 40 fs Single-Measurement Uncertainty," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 448- (2004)

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  1. P. A. Williams, "Modulation phase-shift measurement of PMD using only four launched polarization states: a new algorithm", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 1578-1579, 1999.
  2. L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, H. Kogelnik and J. P. Gordon, "Measurement of polarization mode dispersion vectors using the polarization-dependent signal delay method", Opt. Express, vol. 6, pp. 158-167, 2000.
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  9. B. N. Taylor, and C. E. Kuyatt, Eds. "Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results", National Inst. Stand. Technol., 1994.
  10. P. A. Williams, S. M. Etzel, J. D. Kofler and C.-M. Wang, "Standard Reference Material 2538 for Polarization-Mode Dispersion (Non-Mode-Coupled)", NIST Special Publication 260-145, 2002.
  11. P. A. Williams, "PMD measurement techniques-avoiding measurement pitfalls", in Venice Summer School on Polarization Mode Dispersion, Venice, Italy,June 24-26 2002.
  12. J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers", in Proc. National Acad. Sci., vol. 97, 2000, pp. 4541-4550.

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