OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology


  • Vol. 22, Iss. 2 — Feb. 1, 2004
  • pp: 499–

Control of Higher Order Leaky Modes in Deep-Ridge Waveguides and Application to Low-Crosstalk Arrayed Waveguide Gratings

Masaki Kohtoku, Takuo Hirono, Satoshi Oku, Yoshiaki Kadota, Yasuo Shibata, and Yuzo Yoshikuni

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp. 499- (2004)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (500 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


In a lightwave circuit using a strongly confined waveguide, higher order leaky modes must be suppressed to obtain ideal characteristics, especially in arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs). Propagation loss for higher order leaky modes in InP-based deep-ridge waveguides was investigated by simulation and experiment. A highly sensitive loss measurement method based on optical low-coherence reflectometry was used to determine the loss, and the relationship between the loss for the higher order mode and AWG crosstalk was investigated. Optimizing the deep-ridge waveguide parameters, especially the core thickness, the refractive index of the core, and the etch depth under the core, significantly reduced the propagation loss for the higher order leaky mode. The effective elimination of the higher order modes will enable fabrication of low-crosstalk AWG routers.

© 2004 IEEE

Masaki Kohtoku, Takuo Hirono, Satoshi Oku, Yoshiaki Kadota, Yasuo Shibata, and Yuzo Yoshikuni, "Control of Higher Order Leaky Modes in Deep-Ridge Waveguides and Application to Low-Crosstalk Arrayed Waveguide Gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 499- (2004)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset


  1. Y. Hida, Y. Hibino, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, A. Sugita and A. Himeno, "400-channel 25-GHz spacing arrayed-waveguide grating covering a full range of C-and L-bands", in Proc. OFC2001, vol. 3, 2001.
  2. Y. Hibino, "High contrast waveguide devices", in Proc. OFC2001 , vol. 3, 2001.
  3. L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Green, I. Moerman and M. K. Smit, "Extremely small multimode interference couplers and ultrashort bends on InP by deep etching", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 1008-1010, 1994.
  4. P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, L. G. Joneckis and P.-T. Ho, "Compact microring notch filters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 398-400, Apr. 2000 .
  5. M. Kohtoku, S. Oku, Y. Kadota, Y. Shibata and Y. Yoshikuni, "Polarization-insensitive semiconductor arrayed waveguide grating integrated with spotsize converter", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1055-1056, 2000.
  6. M. Kohtoku, H. Sanjoh, S. Oku, Y. Kadota and Y. Yoshikuni, "Polarization independent semiconductor arrayed waveguide gratings using a deep-ridge waveguide structure", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E81-C, pp. 1195-1204, Aug. 1998.
  7. T. H. Wood, E. C. Carr, C. A. Burrus, B. I. Miller and U. Koren, "Large electroabsorption effect in GaInAs/InP multiple quantum well (MQW) optical modulator grown by OMVPE", Electron. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 840-841, 1988.
  8. N. Yoshimoto, Y. Shibata, S. Oku, S. Kondo and Y. Noguchi, "Design and demonstration of polarization-insensitive Mach-Zehnder switch using a lattice-matched InGaAlAs/InAlAs MQW and deep-etched high-mesa waveguide structure", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1662-1668, 1999.
  9. E. C. M. Pennings, R. van Roijen, M. J. N. van Stralen, B. H. Verbeek, J. M. M. van der Heijden and T. van Dongen, "Spectral behavior of InP-based ring lasers employing multimode interference devices", in Proc. Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting, 1 (LEOS '93), 1993, pp. 617-618.
  10. K. Kasaya, Y. Yoshikuni and H. Ishii, "Measurements of a semiconductor waveguide using a low-coherence interferometric reflectometer", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 251-253, Feb. 1996.
  11. J. A. P. da Silva, C. R. Prola and J. P. von der Weid, "Optical low coherence reflectometry for characterization of optical devices", in Proc. Microwave Optoelectronics Conference , vol. 2, 1995, pp. 596-600.
  12. T. Hirono, M. Kohtoku, Y. Yoshikuni, W. W. Lui and K. Yokoyama, "Optimized offset to eliminate first-order mode excitation at the junction of straight and curved multimode waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 982 -984, July 1998.
  13. C. K. Nadler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker and H. Melchior, "Polarization insensitive, low-loss, low-crosstalk wavelength multiplexer modules", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 5, pp. 1407-1412, Sept./Oct. 1999.
  14. C. Vazquez, C. Aramburu, M. Lopez-Amo and J. M. S. Pena, "Multimode interference filter to solve degradation on coupler common-mode rejection", in Proc. Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting, 1998. (LEOS '98), vol. 1, 1998, pp. 326-327.
  15. M. Kohtoku, Y. Shibata and Y. Yoshikuni, "Evaluation of the rejection ratio of an MMI-based higher order mode filter using optical low-coherence reflectometry", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 968 -970, July 2002.
  16. L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 615-627, 1995.
  17. M. K. Smit and C. Van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications", IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 2, pp. 236-250, Mar./Apr. 1996.
  18. C. van Dam, A. A. M. Staring, E. J. Jansen, J. J. M. Binsma, T. van Dongen, M. K. Smit and B. H. Verbeek, "Elimination of ghost images in the response of PHASAR-demultiplexers", in Proc. 8th Eur. Conf. Integrated Optics , Stockholm, Sweden, 1997, pp. 268-271.
  19. A. Vukovic, P. Sewell, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson and P. C. Kendall, "Singularity-corrected spectral index method", Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc.-Optoelectron., vol. 145, pp. 59-64, 1998.
  20. J. M. Heaton, M. M. Bourke, S. B. Jones, B. H. Smith, K. P. Hilton, G. W. Smith, J. C. H. Birbeck, G. Berry, S. V. Dewar and D. R. Wight, "Optimization of deep-etched, single-mode GaAs-AlGaAs optical waveguides using controlled leakage into the substrate", J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 267-281, 1999.
  21. A. S. Sudbo, "Film mode matching: a versatile numerical method for vector mode field calculations in dielectric waveguides", Pure Appl. Opt., vol. 2, pp. 211-233, 1993.
  22. S. Oku, Y. Shibata and K. Ochiai, "Controlled beam dry etching of InP by using Br2-N2 gas", J. Electron. Mater., vol. 25, pp. 585-591, 1996.

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited