OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology


  • Vol. 23, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 2005
  • pp: 247–

Compact Switched-Retroreflection-Based 2 x 2 Optical Switching Fabric for WDM Applications

Nabeel A. Riza and Nicholas Madamopoulos

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 23, Issue 1, pp. 247- (2005)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (474 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


A low-interchannel-crosstalk 2 x 2 optical switch is proposed and analyzed. The switch is polarization independent and is based on a novel switch-retroreflection architecture and standard fiber-optic circulators that offer ease in assembly and compact size. Low interchannel crosstalk is accomplished using passive and active noise filters that suppress the leakage noise due to the passive polarization components and the active devices, respectively. Theoretical analysis of the proposed 2 x 2 optical switch is performed,and the switch interchannel crosstalk and optical insertion loss is estimated under different conditions. A novel system architecture is also proposed that uses the switched-retroreflection-based 2 x 2 optical switch and wavelength-division multiplexers/demultiplexers to form an add-drop wavelength-division-multiplexed filter with reduced component count.

© 2005 IEEE

Nabeel A. Riza and Nicholas Madamopoulos, "Compact Switched-Retroreflection-Based 2 x 2 Optical Switching Fabric for WDM Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 247- (2005)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset


  1. D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, J. J. Johnson and K. W. Cheung, "Integrated-optic acoustically tunable filters for WDM networks", IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1151-1159, Aug. 1990.
  2. O. Ishida, H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki and Y. Inoue, "Multichannel frequency selective switch employing an array-waveguide grating multiplexer with fold-back optical paths", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 1219 -1221, Oct. 1994.
  3. H.-P. Nolting and M. Gravert, "Electro-optically controlled multiwavelength cross-connector applications", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 315-318, Mar. 1995.
  4. J. S. Patel and Y. Silberberg, "Liquid crystal and grating-based multiple-wavelength cross connect switch", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 514-516, May 1995.
  5. Y. Shibata, S. Oku, Y. Kondo and T. Tamamura, "Semiconductor monolitic wavelength router using grating switch integrated with directional coupler", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 966-967, Jun. 1995.
  6. K. Okamoto, K. Takiguchi and Y. Ohmori, "16-channel optical add-drop multiplexer consisting of arrayed-waveguide gratings and double-gate switches", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 1471-1472, 1996.
  7. B. Glance, "Wavelength tunable add/drop optical filter", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 245 -247, Feb. 1996.
  8. H. Okayama and T. Kamijoh, "Multi-port wavelength routers using multi-mode interference", Opt. Eng., vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 1078-1081, Apr. 1998.
  9. J. L. Arce-Diego, R. Lopez-Ruisanchez, J. M. Lopez-Higuera and M. A. Muriel, "Fiber Bragg grating as an optical filter tuned by a magnetic field", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 603-605, May 1997.
  10. G. Nykolak, M. R. X. de Barros, T. N. Nielsen and L. Eskildsen, "All-fiber active add-drop wavelength router", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 605-606, May 1997.
  11. N. A. Riza and J. Chen, "Ultrahigh-47 dB optical drop rejection multiwavelength add-drop filter using spatial filtering and dual bulk acousto-optic tunable filters", Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 945-947, Jun. <day>15</day>, 1998.
  12. R. E. Wagner and J. Cheng, "Electrically controlled optical switch for multimode fiber applications", Appl. Opt., vol. 19, pp. 2921 -2925, 1980.
  13. R. A. Soref, "Low-cross-talk 2 x 2 optical switch", Opt. Lett. , vol. 6, pp. 275-276, 1981.
  14. K. T. Yamamoto, Y. H. Itoh and T. Nagayami, "Optical space switch and network for such optical space switches", U.S. Patent 5 162 944, Nov. <day>10</day>, 1992.
  15. Y. Hakamata, T. Yoshizawa and T. Kodaira, "A 1.3 � m single-mode 2 x 2 liquid crystal optical switch", IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E77-B, no. 10, 1994.
  16. M. R. Meadows, "Electro-optical switch with 4-port modules with electro-optic polarization rotators", U.S. Patent 5 381 250, Jan. <day>10</day>, 1995.
  17. K. Y. Wu, "Fault tolerant optical routing switch", U.S. Patent 5 724 165, Mar. <day>3</day>, 1998.
  18. N. A. Riza and S. Sumriddetchkajorn, "Two dimensional digital micromirror device-based 2 x 2 fiber-optic switch array", in IEEE LEOS Annu. Meeting, vol. 2, Orlando, FL, 1998, pp. 413- 414.
  19. 2x 2 Interferometric Switches, UTP Catalog of Integrated Optical Circuits,UTP, Bloomfield, CN, 1997.
  20. R. A. Miller, Y. C. Tai, G. Xu, J. Bartha and F. Lin, "An electromagnetic MEMS 2 x 2 fiber optic bypass switch", in Tech. Dig., 1997 Int. Conf. Solid-State Sensors Actuators (Transducers'97), vol. 1, Chicago, IL, Jun. <day>16-19</day> 1997, pp. 89-92.
  21. K. Hogari and T. Matsumoto, "Electrostatically driven micromechanical 2 x 2 optical switch", Appl. Opt. , vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1253-1257, 1991.
  22. Q. Lai, W. Hunziker and H. Melchior, "Low-power compact 2 multiplied by 2 thermooptic silica-on-silicon waveguide switch with fast response", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 681-683, May 1998.
  23. M. Okuno, T. Kitoh, N. Takato and A. Sugita, "Silica-based thermo-optic switches", NTT (Nippon Telegraph Telephone) R&D, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 1289-1298, 1994.
  24. H. Liu, D. Liu, S. Yin and L. L. Huang, "Optical switch", U.S. Patent 6 493 139, Dec. <day>10</day>, 2002.
  25. N. A. Riza, "Polarization-based fiber-optic switch", U.S. Patent 6 360 037 B1, Mar. <day>19</day>, 2002.
  26. N. A. Riza, "Ferroelectric liquid crystal polarization switching-based high speed multiwavelength add/drop filters using fiber and array-waveguide gratings", in Optics in Computing Eur. Optical Soc. Topical Meeting Dig. Series (OC'98), , Belgium,Jun. <day>17-20</day> 1998, pp. 335-338.
  27. "CVI Catalog", CVI Corporation,Albuquerque, NM.1998.
  28. N. A. Riza and N. Madamopoulos, "Characterization of a FLC-based time delay unit for phased array antennas", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1088-1094, Jul. 1997.
  29. N. Madamopoulos and N. A. Riza, "Polarization selective hologram-based photonic delay lines", Opt. Commun., vol. 157, pp. 225 -237, Dec. 1998.
  30. N. Madamopoulos, "Ferroelectric liquid crystal device based photonic controllers for microwave antenna arrays", Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Central Florida, Univ. of Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI, <trannot></trannot>.
  31. "LightPath Collimators", LightPath 1998 Catalog, LightPath Technologies,Inc., Albuquerque, NM.1998.
  32. S. Yuan and N. A. Riza, "General formula for coupling loss characterization of single mode fiber collimators using gradient-index rod lenses", Appl. Opt. , vol. 38, no. 15, pp. 3214-3222, May <day>20</day>, 1999.
  33. S. Yuan and N. A. Riza, "Erratum on `General formula for coupling loss characterization of single mode fiber collimators using gradient-index rod lenses'", Appl. Opt. , vol. 38, no. 30, pp. 6292, Oct. 1999.
  34. M. van Buren and N. A. Riza, "Foundations for low loss fiber gradient-index lens pair coupling with the self-imaging mechanism", Appl. Opt., vol. 42, no. 3, Jan. <day>20</day>, 2003.
  35. R. A. Soref, "Optical bypass switch", U.S. Patent 4 478 494, Oct. <day>23</day>, 1984.

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited