OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology

| A JOINT IEEE/OSA PUBLICATION

  • Vol. 24, Iss. 12 — Dec. 1, 2006
  • pp: 5000–5007

A Novel Optochemical Sensor Based on SnO2 Sensitive Thin Film for ppm Ammonia Detection in Liquid Environment

Marco Pisco, Marco Consales, Stefania Campopiano, Roman Viter, Valentin Smyntyna, Michele Giordano, and Andrea Cusano

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 24, Issue 12, pp. 5000-5007 (2006)


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (832 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations
  • Export Citation/Save Click for help

Abstract

In this paper, a fiber optic sensing system, designed, and developed for the detection of ammonia in aqueous ambient at room temperature, is presented. The sensor is constituted by a standard silica optical fiber (SOF) coated by a tin dioxide sensitive layer. The SnO2 films have been transferred onto the distal end of the SOF by means of the simple and low-cost electrostatic-spray-pyrolysis deposition technique. The spectral characterization of the fabricated samples has been carried out in the wavelength range 400–1750 nm in order to estimate the thickness of the SnO2 fiber coatings. The morphology and the elemental composition of the deposited layers have also been investigated by means of scanning-electron-microscopy observation and energy-dispersive-spectrometer analysis, respectively. Single-wavelength reflectance measurements have been carried out to test the sensing performances of the realized sensors toward ammonia traces in water. A fiber-Bragg-grating temperature sensor has also been used for monitoring the temperature changes occurring inside the test ambient during the experimental measurements, in order to identify the effects of thermal drifts on the sensor response. The results here presented demonstrate that the developed refractometric chemical sensor is able to provide measurements of ammonia concentration in water and at room temperature with a high sensitivity, response times of few minutes, and a resolution as low as 2 ppm.

© 2006 IEEE

Citation
Marco Pisco, Marco Consales, Stefania Campopiano, Roman Viter, Valentin Smyntyna, Michele Giordano, and Andrea Cusano, "A Novel Optochemical Sensor Based on SnO2 Sensitive Thin Film for ppm Ammonia Detection in Liquid Environment," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 5000-5007 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jlt/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-24-12-5000


Sort:  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. B. J. Wicks, R. Joensen, Q. Tang, D. J. Randall, "Swimming and ammonia toxicity in salmonids: The effect of sub lethal ammonia exposure on the swimming performance of coho salmon and the acute toxicity of ammonia in swimming and resting rainbow trout," Aquat. Toxicol. 59, 55-69 (2002).
  2. S. G. Sazhin, E. I. Soborover, S. V. Tokarev, "Sensor methods of ammonia inspection," Russ. J. Nondestruct. Test. 39, 791-806 (2003).
  3. B. Timmer, W. Olthuis, A. van den Berg, "Ammonia sensors and their applications—A review," Sens. Actuators B, Chem. 107, 666-677 (2005).
  4. P. Gorley, V. Khomyak, S. Bilichuk, I. Orletsky, P. Horley, V. Grechko, "$\hbox{SnO}_{2}$ films: Formation, electrical and optical properties," Mater. Sci. Eng., B 118, 160-163 (2005).
  5. O. Scarlat, S. Mihaiu, G. Aldica, J. Groza, M. Zaharescu, "Semiconducting densified $\hbox{SnO}_{2}$-ceramics by a novel sintering technique," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 24, 1049-1052 (2004).
  6. H.-J. Michel, H. Leiste, J. Halbritter, "Structural and electrical characterization of PVD-deposited $\hbox{SnO}_{2}$ films for gas-sensor application," Sens. Actuators B, Chem. 25, 568-572 (1995).
  7. D. Davazoglou, "Optical properties of $\hbox{SnO}_{2}$ thin films grown by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition oxidizing $\hbox{SnCl}_{4}$," Thin Solid Films 302, 204-213 (1997).
  8. E. H. A. Diagne, M. Lumbreras, "Elaboration and characterization of tin oxide-lanthanum oxide mixed layers prepared by electrostatic spray pyrolysis technique," Sens. Actuators B, Chem. 78, 98-105 (2001).
  9. M. Pisco, M. Consales, R. Viter, V. Smyntyna, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, "Novel $\hbox{SnO}_{2}$ based optical sensor for detecting the low ammonia concentration in water at room temperatures," Int. Sci. J. Semicond. Phys., Quantum Electron. Optoelectron. 8, 95-99 (2005).
  10. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Inst. Phys., 2001).
  11. S. G. Ansary, S. W. Gosavi, S. A. Gangal, R. N. Karekar, R. C. Aiyer, "Characterization of $\hbox{SnO}_{2}$-based $\hbox{H}_{2}$ gas sensors fabricated by different deposition techniques," J. Mater. Sci., Mater. Electron. 8, 23-27 (1997).
  12. M. Penza, G. Cassano, P. Aversa, F. Antolini, A. Cusano, M. Consales, M. Giordano, L. Nicolais, "Carbon nanotubes coated multi-transducing sensors for VOCs detection," Sens. Actuators B, Chem. 111/112, 171-180 (2005).
  13. H. Gourari, M. Lumbreras, R. Van Landschoot, J. Schoonman, "Electrode nature effects on stannic oxide type layers prepared by electrostatic spray deposition," Sens. Actuators B, Chem. 58, 365-369 (1999).
  14. Y. Matsushima, Y. Nemoto, T. Yamazaki, "Fabrication of $\hbox{SnO}_{2}$ particle-layer on the glass substrate using electrospray pyrolysis method and the gas sensitivity for $\hbox{H}_{2}$," Sens. Actuators B, Chem. 96, 133-138 (2003).
  15. E. H. A. Diagne, M. Lumberas, "Elaboration and characterization of tin oxide-lanthanum oxide mixed layers prepared by the electrostatic spray pyrolysis technique," Sens. Actuators B, Chem. 78, 98-105 (2001).
  16. Y. Higashiyama, S. Tanaka, T. Sugimoto, K. Asano, "Size distribution of the charged droplets in an axisymmetric shower," J. Electrost. 47, 183-195 (1999).
  17. Y. Matsui, M. Mitsuhashi, Y. Goto, "Early stage of tin oxide film growth in chemical vapor deposition," Surf. Coat. Technol. 169, 549-552 (2003).
  18. P. S. Patil, R. K. Kawar, T. Seth, D. P. Amalnerkar, P. S. Chigare, "Effect of substrate temperature on structural, electrical and optical properties of sprayed tin dioxide $(\hbox{SnO}_{2})$ thin films," Ceram. Int. 20, 725-734 (2003).
  19. R. Ramamoorthy, M. K. Kennedy, H. Nienhaus, A. Lorke, F. E. Kruis, H. Fissan, "Surface oxidation of monodisperse $\hbox{SnO}_{\rm x}$ nanoparticles," Sens. Actuators B, Chem. 88, 281-285 (2003).
  20. J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
  21. J. M. González-Leal, R. Prieto-Alcón, M. Stuchlik, M. Vlcek, S. R. Elliott, "Determination of the surface roughness and refractive index of amorphous As40S60 films deposited by spin coating," Opt. Mater. 27, 147-154 (2004).
  22. M. Losurdo, D. Barreca, P. Capezzuto, G. Bruno, E. Tondello, "Interrelation between nanostructure and optical properties of oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Surf. Coat. Technol. 151/152, 2-8 (2002).
  23. A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, L. Nicolais, "Optoelectronic refractive index measurements: Application to smart processing," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 781-787 (2003).
  24. M. Consales, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Penza, P. Aversa, G. Cassano, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, "Sensing properties of buffered and not buffered carbon nanotubes by fiber optic and acoustic sensors," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1220-1228 (2006).
  25. A. Cusano, G. Breglio, M. Giordano, L. Nicolais, A. Cutolo, "Multifunction fiber optic sensing system for smart applications," IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 9, 40-49 (2004).
  26. M. Pisco, M. Consales, S. D'addio, R. Viter, V. Smyntyna, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, "Simultaneous temperature and ammonia detection in water by tin-dioxide optoelectronic sensor," Proc. IEEE Sensors (2005) pp. 881.
  27. E. Elangovan, K. Ramamurthi, "Optoelectronic properties of spray deposited $\hbox{SnO}_{2}$: $F$ thin films for window materials in solar cells," J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 5, 45-54 (2003).
  28. W. K. Choi, J. S. Cho, S. K. Song, H.-J. Jung, S. K. Koh, K. H. Yoon, C. M. Lee, M. C. Sung, K. Jeong, "The characterization of undoped SnOx thin film grown by reactive ion-assisted deposition," Thin Solid Films 304, 85-97 (1997).
  29. H. Haitjema, "Relations between the optical, electrical and structural properties of Fluorine-doped tin dioxide coatings," Proc. SPIE—Opt. Mater. Technol. for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Convers. IX (1990) pp. 26-37.
  30. T. Kawabe, K. Tabata, E. Suzuki, Y. Nagasawa, "Methanol adsorption on $\hbox{SnO}_{2}$ thin films with different morphologies," Surf. Sci. 482–485, 1183-188 (2001).
  31. M. Batzill, U. Diebold, "The surface and materials science of tin oxide," Prog. Surf. Sci. 79, 47-154 (2005).
  32. G. Pennazza, A. Macagnano, E. Martinelli, R. Paolesse, C. Di Natale, A. D'Amico, Sensors and Microsystems (World Scientific, 2003) pp. 318.
  33. D.-S. Lee, J.-K. Jung, J.-W. Lim, J.-S. Huh, D.-D. Lee, "Recognition of volatile organic compounds using $\hbox{SnO}_{2}$ sensor array and pattern recognition analysis," Sens. Actuators B, Chem. 77, 228-236 (2001).
  34. M. Penza, G. Cassano, "Application of principal component analysis and artificial neural networks to recognize the individual VOCs of methanol/2-propanol in a binary mixture by SAW multi-sensor array," Sens. Actuators B, Chem. 89, 269-284 (2003).
  35. V. A. Chaudhary, I. S. Mulla, K. Vijayamohanan, "Selective hydrogen sensing properties of surface functionalized tin oxide," Sens. Actuators B, Chem. 55, 154-160 (1999).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited