OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology


  • Vol. 25, Iss. 6 — Jun. 1, 2007
  • pp: 1531–1536

Word-Synchronous Optical Sampling of Periodically Repeated OTDM Data Words for True Waveform Visualization

Erik Benkler and Harald R. Telle

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 25, Issue 6, pp. 1531-1536 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (404 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


An improved phase-locked loop (PLL) for versatile synchronization of a sampling pulse train to an optical data stream is presented. It enables optical sampling of the true waveform of repetitive high bit-rate optical time division multiplexed (OTDM) data words such as pseudorandom bit sequences. Visualization of the true waveform can reveal details, which cause systematic bit errors. Such errors cannot be inferred from eye diagrams and require word-synchronous sampling. The programmable direct-digital-synthesis circuit used in our novel PLL approach allows flexible adaption of virtually any problem-specific synchronization scenario, including those required for waveform sampling, for jitter measurements by slope detection, and for classical eye-diagrams. Phase comparison of the PLL is performed at 10-GHz OTDM base clock rate, leading to a residual synchronization jitter of less than 70 fs.

© 2007 IEEE

Erik Benkler and Harald R. Telle, "Word-Synchronous Optical Sampling of Periodically Repeated OTDM Data Words for True Waveform Visualization," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1531-1536 (2007)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. M. Nakazawa, T. Yamamoto, K. R. Tamura, "1.28 Tb/s-70 km OTDM transmission using third- and fourth-order simultaneous dispersion compensation with a phase modulator," Electron. Lett. 36, 2027-2029 (2000).
  2. M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Software-synchronized all-optical sampling for fiber communications systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1088-1099 (2005).
  3. N. Yamada, H. Ohta, S. Nogiwa, "Polarization-insensitive optical sampling system using two KTP Crystals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 215-217 (2004).
  4. M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, H. Sunnerud, J. Hansryd, J. Li, "High-performance optical-fiber-nonlinearity-based optical waveform monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2012-2022 (2005).
  5. I. Kang, K. Dreyer, "Sensitive 320 Gb/s eye diagram measurements via optical sampling with semiconductor optical amplifier-ultrafast nonlinear interferometer," Electron. Lett. 39, 1081-1083 (2003).
  6. C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, M. G. Raymer, "Linear optical sampling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746-1768 (2003).
  7. E. Benkler, H. R. Telle, K. Weingarten, L. Krainer, G. Spühler, U. Keller, "Characterization of ultrashort optical pulse properties by amplitude-modulation-balanced heterodyne gating," Opt. Lett. 30, 2016-2018 (2005).
  8. C. Dorrer, "Monitoring of optical signals from constellation diagrams measured with linear optical sampling ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 313-321 (2006).
  9. C. Dorrer, "High-speed measurements for optical telecommunication systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 843-858 (2006).
  10. M. Attygalle, Y. J. Wen, "Injection-locked Fabry–Pérot laser with electronic feedback for clock recovery from high-speed OTDM signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 478-480 (2006).
  11. L. Cordesses, "Direct digital synthesis: A tool for periodic wave generation (Part 1)," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 21, 50-54 (2004).
  12. L. Cordesses, "Direct digital synthesis: A tool for periodic wave generation (Part 2)," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 21, 110-112 (2004).
  13. L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spühler, I. Klimov, C. Teisset, K. J. Weingarten, U. Keller, "Tunable picosecond pulse-generating laser with a repetition rate exceeding 10 GHz," Electron. Lett. 38, 225-227 (2002).
  14. H. Hundertmark, D. Kracht, M. Engelbrecht, D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, "Stable sub-85 fs passively mode-locked Erbium fiber oscillator with tunable repetition rate ," Opt. Express 12, 3178-3183 (2004).
  15. A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, L. Hollberg, "Femtosecond-laser-based synthesis of ultrastable microwave signals from optical frequency references," Opt. Lett. 30, 667-669 (2005).
  16. S. Nogiwa, Y. Kawaguchi, H. Ohta, Y. Endo, "Generation of gain-switched optical pulses with very low timing jitter by using external CW-light injection seeding," Electron. Lett. 36, 235-236 (2000).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited