OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology


  • Vol. 27, Iss. 15 — Aug. 1, 2009
  • pp: 2977–2982

Measurement of Er-Doped Fiber Nonlinearity Using Continuous-Wave Self-Phase Modulation Method

Tuomas Hieta and Erkki Ikonen

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 27, Issue 15, pp. 2977-2982 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (213 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


The intensity-dependent nonlinear coefficient $n_{2}/A_{{\rm eff}}$ of a short Er-doped, amplifying fiber is determined using a method thoroughly studied for measurements of passive fibers. Measurement uncertainty of 3.0% is achieved using modified continuous-wave self-phase modulation method. In addition to metrological aspects, we also discuss limitations and conditions imposed by the Er-doped fiber as compared with the measurement of a pure silica core fiber. The used measurement method is advantageous as compared with other techniques due to its reliability and ease of implementation.

© 2009 IEEE

Tuomas Hieta and Erkki Ikonen, "Measurement of Er-Doped Fiber Nonlinearity Using Continuous-Wave Self-Phase Modulation Method," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2977-2982 (2009)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. Y. Namihira, "ITU-T round robin measurement for nonlinear coefficient $({\rm n}_2/{\rm A}_{\rm eff})$ of various single mode optical fibers," Tech. Dig. Symp. Opt. Fiber Meas. (2004) pp. 33-36.
  2. F. A. Oguama, A. M. Johnson, W. A. Reed, "Measurement of the nonlinear coefficient of telecommunication fibers as a function of Er, Al, and Ge doping profiles by using the photorefractive beam-coupling technique," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 1600-1604 (2005).
  3. A. Lamminpaa, T. Hieta, J. Envall, E. Ikonen, "Reliable determination of optical fiber nonlinearity using dispersion simulatuions and improved power measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 527-532 (2006).
  4. Y. Liu, S. Burtsev, S. Tsuda, S. P. Hegarty, R. S. Mozdy, M. Hempstead, G. G. Luther, R. G. Smart, "Four-wave mixing in EDFAs," Electron. Lett. 35, 2130-2131 (1999).
  5. K. Song, M. Premaratne, "Effects of SPM, XPM, and four-wave-mixing in L-band EDFAs on fiber-optic signal transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1630-1632 (2000).
  6. H. Garcia, A. M. Johnson, F. A. Oguama, S. Trivedi, "New approach to the measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of short ($<25$ m) lengths of silica and erbium-doped fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1796-1798 (2003).
  7. A. Boskovic, S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, L. Gruner-Nielsen, O. A. Levring, "Direct continuous-wave measurement of $n_{2}$ in various types of telecommunication fiber at 1.55 $\mu$m," Opt. Lett. 21, 1966-1968 (1996).
  8. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2001).
  9. A. Lamminpää, T. Niemi, E. Ikonen, P. Marttila, H. Ludvigsen, "Effects of dispersion on nonlinearity measurement of optical fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 278-285 (2005).
  10. G. J. Pendock, S. Y. Park, A. K. Srivastava, S. Radic, J. W. Sulhoff, C. L. Wolf, K. Kantor, Y. Sun, "The contribution to cross-phase modulation in L-band WDM systems from erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1578-1580 (1999).
  11. A. A. M. Saleh, R. M. Jopson, J. D. Evankow, J. Aspell, "Modeling of gain in erbium-doped fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 714-717 (1990).
  12. J. Envall, P. Kärhä, E. Ikonen, "Measurement of fibre optic power using photodiodes with and without integrating sphere," Metrologia 41, 353-358 (2004).
  13. H. Garcia, A. M. Johnson, F. A. Oguama, S. Trivedi, "Pump-induced nonlinear refractive index change in erbium- and ytterbium-doped fibers: Theory and experiment," Opt. Lett 30, 1261-1263 (2005).
  14. M. Bolstyansky, "Spectral hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1032-1038 (2003).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited