OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology


  • Vol. 27, Iss. 16 — Aug. 15, 2009
  • pp: 3389–3398

Non-Gaussian ASE Noise in Raman Amplification Systems

Nelson Jesus Muga, Meire Cristina Fugihara, Mário Fernando S. Ferreira, and Armando Nolasco Pinto

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 27, Issue 16, pp. 3389-3398 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1329 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


A model accurately describing amplified spontaneous emission noise in systems with distributed Raman gain is presented. Numerical simulations are corroborated with experimental results. Our model is used to study the interaction between signal and noise mediated by fiber nonlinearities for different propagation regimes. It is shown that for distances longer than 120 km and moderate signal powers, higher than 6 mW, the noise statistics deviates significatively from the Gaussian distribution.

© 2009 IEEE

Nelson Jesus Muga, Meire Cristina Fugihara, Mário Fernando S. Ferreira, and Armando Nolasco Pinto, "Non-Gaussian ASE Noise in Raman Amplification Systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 3389-3398 (2009)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002).
  2. M. Islam, "Raman amplifiers for telecommunications," IEEE J. Sel. To. Quantum Electron. 8, 548-559 (2002).
  3. C. Headley, IIIG. P. Agrawal, Raman Amplification in Fiber Optical Communication Systems (Academic Press, 2004).
  4. J. P. Gordon, H. A. Haus, "Random walk of coherently amplified solitons in optical fiber transmission," Opt. Lett. 11, 665 (1986).
  5. A. N. Pinto, G. P. Agrawal, J. R. F. da Rocha, "Effect of soliton interaction on timing jitter in communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 515-519 (1998).
  6. A. N. Pinto, J. R. F. da Rocha, Q. Lin, G. P. Agrawal, "Optical versus electrical dispersion compensation: Role of timing jitter," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 387 (2006).
  7. A. N. Pinto, G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear interaction between signal and noise in optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1847-1853 (2008).
  8. H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, E. Rabarijaona, "Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 530-532 (1999).
  9. B. Min, W. J. Lee, N. Park, "Efficient formulation of Raman amplifier propagation equations with average power analysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1486-1488 (2000).
  10. V. Perlin, H. Winful, "Optimizing the noise performance of broad-band WDM systems with distributed Raman amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1199-1201 (2002).
  11. X. Liu, Y. Li, "Optimizing the bandwidth and noise performance of distributed multi-pump Raman amplifiers," Opt. Commun. (2004).
  12. M. Fugihara, A. N. Pinto, "Low-cost Raman amplifier for CWDM systems," Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 50, 297-301 (2008).
  13. P. Xiao, Q. Zeng, J. Huang, J. Liu, "A new optimal algorithm for multipump sources of distributed fiber Raman amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 206-208 (2003).
  14. X. Liu, Y. Li, "Efficient algorithm and optimization for broadband Raman amplifiers," Opt. Express 12, (2004).
  15. W. Zhang, X. Feng, J. Peng, X. Liu, "A simple algorithm for gain spectrum adjustment of backward-pumped distributed fiber Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 69-71 (2004).
  16. C. Headley, IIIG. Agrawal, "Noise characteristics and statistics of picosecond stokes pulses generated in optical fibers through stimulated Raman scattering," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2058-2067 (1995).
  17. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2001).
  18. M. G. Raymer, J. Mostowski, "Stimulated Raman scattering: Unified treatment of spontaneous initiation and spatial propagation," Phys. Rev. A 24, 1980-1993 (1981).
  19. D. Marcuse, "Single-channel operation in very long nonlinear fibers with optical amplifiers at zero dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 356-361 (1991).
  20. J. P. Gordon, L. F. Mollenauer, "Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 15, 1351-1353 (1990).
  21. A. Mecozzi, "Limits to long-haul coherent transmission set by the Kerr nonlinearity and noise of the in-line amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1993-2000 (1994).
  22. E. Vanin, G. Jacobsen, A. Berntson, "Nonlinear phase noise separation method for on-off keying transmission system modeling with non-Gaussian noise generation in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 1740-1742 (2007).
  23. M. P. Dlubek, A. J. Philliphs, E. C. Larkins, "Nonlinear evolution of Gaussian ASE noise in ZMNL fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 891-898 (2008).
  24. G. P. Agrawal, Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2002).
  25. C. Headley, IIIG. P. Agrawal, "Unified description of ultrafast stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2170 (1996).
  26. Q. Zhang, M. Hayee, "Symmetrized split-step fourier scheme to control global simulation accuracy in fiber-optic communication systems," Lightw. Technol. J. 26, 302-316 (2008).
  27. A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, 1991).
  28. M. C. Jeruchim, P. Balaban, K. S. Shanmugan, Simulation of Communication Systems: Modeling, Methodology and Techniques (Kluwer Academic, 2000).
  29. W. H. Press, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited