OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology

| A JOINT IEEE/OSA PUBLICATION

  • Vol. 28, Iss. 18 — Sep. 15, 2010
  • pp: 2701–2707

Multipath Interference in Pulse-Pumped Fiber Raman Amplifiers: Analytical Approach

Vineetha Kalavally, Ivan D. Rukhlenko, Malin Premaratne, and Tin Win

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 28, Issue 18, pp. 2701-2707 (2010)


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (278 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations
  • Export Citation/Save Click for help

Abstract

We present an analytical study of multipath interference (MPI) in pulse-pumped fiber Raman amplifiers (FRAs), caused by the internal reflections from the fiber facets and the effect of Rayleigh backscattering. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we derive a generalized expression for the MPI-induced noise on signal in counter-pumped FRAs. The obtained result takes into account four major sources of MPI, suggests their physically transparent classification, and enables us to predict the FRA's noise performance for an arbitrary modulated pump. Using the derived expression, we characterize the MPI-induced noise in a typical 80-km span of single-mode optical fiber. Specifically, we examine the noise enhancement in the pulse-pumped amplifier as compared to the amplifier operating in the continuous-wave regime, and analyze its dependence on the on-off gain and the pump-pulse duty cycle. We also estimate the impact of the MPI-induced noise transfer on the amplifier's performance, and discuss the optimal choice of pump modulation for different values of Q-penalty. The results of our study are important for the design optimization of FRAs with time-division-multiplexed pumping.

© 2010 IEEE

Citation
Vineetha Kalavally, Ivan D. Rukhlenko, Malin Premaratne, and Tin Win, "Multipath Interference in Pulse-Pumped Fiber Raman Amplifiers: Analytical Approach," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2701-2707 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jlt/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-28-18-2701


Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. J. Bromage, "Raman amplification for fiber communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 79-93 (2004).
  2. M. Premaratne, "Analytical characterization of optical power and noise figure of forward pumped Raman amplifiers," Opt. Express 15, 4235-4245 (2004).
  3. A. C. O. Chan, M. Premaratne, "Dispersion-compensating fiber Raman amplifiers with step, parabolic, and triangular refractive index profiles," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1190-1197 (2007).
  4. S. Namiki, Y. Emori, "Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 3-16 (2001).
  5. L. F. Mollenauer, A. R. Grant, P. V. Mamyshev, "Time-division multiplexing of pump wavelengths to achieve ultrabroadband, flat, backward-pumped Raman gain," Opt. Lett. 27, 592-594 (2002).
  6. M. A. Mahdi, S. J. Sheih, "Effects of time-division multiplexing of two-pump wavelengths on a counter-pumped Raman-fiber amplifier," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 42, 238-239 (2004).
  7. P. J. Winzer, K. Sherman, M. Zirngibl, "Time-division multiplexed Raman pump experiment using a tunable $C$-band laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 789-791 (2002).
  8. C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, N. Jolley, R. J. Mears, "Novel ultra-broadband high performance distributed Raman amplifier employing pump modulation," Proc. OFC (2002) pp. 183-184.
  9. M. Karasek, J. Kanka, J. Radil, J. Vojtech, "Large signal model of TDM-pumped Raman fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1848-1850 (2005).
  10. A. R. Grant, "Calculating the Raman pump distribution to achieve minimum gain ripple," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1503-1509 (2002).
  11. P. J. Winzer, J. Bromage, R. T. Kane, P. A. Sammer, C. H. Headley, "Repetition rate requirements for time division multiplexed Raman pumping," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 401-408 (2004).
  12. J. Bromage, P. J. Winzer, L. E. Nelson, M. D. Mermelstein, C. Horn, C. H. Headley, "Amplified spontaneous emission in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 667-669 (2003).
  13. V. Kalavally, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, T. Win, "Analytical study of RIN transfer in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4536-4543 (2009).
  14. G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani, F. Di Pasquale, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division-multiplexing schemes," IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 16, 1286-1288 (2004).
  15. S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, "Characterisation of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 528-530 (2000).
  16. M. Nissov, K. Rottwitt, H. D. Kidorf, M. X. Ma, "Rayleigh crosstalk in long cascades of distributed unsaturated Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 35, 997-998 (1999).
  17. C. R. S. Fludger, R. J. Mears, "Electrical measurements of multipath interference in distributed Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 536-545 (2001).
  18. C. H. Kim, J. Bromage, R. M. Jopson, "Reflection-induced penalty in Raman amplified systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 573-575 (2002).
  19. G. Bolognini, A. Bononi, "Reduction of double Rayleigh scattering noise in distributed Raman amplifiers employing higher-order pumping," Opt. Exp. 17, 6996-7003 (2009).
  20. P. Parolari, L. Marazzi, L. Bernardini, M. Martinelli, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in lumped and distributed Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2224-2228 (2003).
  21. R. J. Essiambre, "Effects of Raman noise and double Rayleigh backscattering on bidirectionally Raman-pumped systems at constant fibre nonlinearity," Proc. ECOC (2001) pp. 108-109.
  22. S. Jiang, B. Bristiel, Y. Jaouen, P. Gallion, E. Pincemin, "Bit-error-rate evaluation of the distributed Raman amplified transmission systems in the presence of double Rayleigh backscattering noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 468-470 (2007).
  23. W. Zhang, J. Peng, X. Liu, C. Fan, "An analytical expression of equivalent noise figure for distributed Raman amplifiers with Rayleigh scattering," Opt. Commun. 199, 231-236 (2001).
  24. C. H. Kim, "Analysis of combined effect of pump-intensity noise and reflection in counter-pumped Raman amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 13, 6099-6104 (2005).
  25. A. Artamonov, V. Smokovdin, M. Kleshov, S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, "Enhancement of double Rayleigh scattering by pump intensity noise in fiber Raman amplifiers," Proc. OFC (2002) pp. 186.
  26. M. N. Islam, Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications 2: Sub-Systems and Systems (Springer, 2004).
  27. C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1140-1148 (2001).
  28. M. V. Dashkov, "Investigation of noise performance in Raman amplifiers of various design," Proc. SPIE (2006) pp. 627701(1)-627701(10).
  29. P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, D. J. DiGiovanni, "Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplfiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 159-161 (1998).
  30. S. Faralli, F. Di Pasquale, "Impact of double Rayleigh scattering noise in distributed higher order Raman pumping schemes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 804-806 (2003).
  31. E. Desurvire, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Theory and implementation of a Raman active fiber delay line," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 426-443 (1986).
  32. A. Kobyakov, S. Gray, M. Vasilyev, "Quantitative analysis of Rayleigh crosstalk in Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 732-733 (2003).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited