OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology

| A JOINT IEEE/OSA PUBLICATION

  • Vol. 28, Iss. 23 — Dec. 1, 2010
  • pp: 3387–3394

Evanescent Coupling Device Design for Waveguide-Integrated Group IV Photodetectors

Donghwan Ahn, Lionel C. Kimerling, and Jurgen Michel

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 28, Issue 23, pp. 3387-3394 (2010)


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1042 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations
  • Export Citation/Save Click for help

Abstract

We have fabricated vertical p-i-n silicon photodetectors that are monolithically integrated with compact silicon-oxynitride channel waveguides. By comparing the evanescent coupling from low index-contrast waveguides and compact, high index-contrast waveguides, the dependence of evanescent coupling behavior on the waveguide index and geometry designs was analyzed. The effects of fabrication variations in the coupling structure have been studied and it was found that an offsetting step in the waveguide can help compensate for the mode mismatch at the transition interface from the input bus waveguide to the waveguide on top of the photodetector. Finally, we present a design map, built by drawing the evanescent coupling rate contour lines in the waveguide design space, which well predicts the evanescent coupling trends.

© 2010 IEEE

Citation
Donghwan Ahn, Lionel C. Kimerling, and Jurgen Michel, "Evanescent Coupling Device Design for Waveguide-Integrated Group IV Photodetectors," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3387-3394 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jlt/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-28-23-3387


Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. L. C. Kimerling, L. D. Negro, S. Saini, Y. Yi, D. Ahn, S. Akiyama, D. Cannon, J. Liu, J. G. Sandland, D. Sparacin, J. Michel, K. Wada, M. R. Watts, Silicon Photonics (Springer-Verlag, 2006) pp. 89-119.
  2. R. Kirchain, L. Kimerling, "A roadmap for nanophotonics," Nat Photon 1, 303-305 (2007).
  3. "Silicon photonics and photonic integrated circuits II," Proc. SPIE (2010).
  4. M. Erman, P. Jarry, R. Gamonal, J.-L. Gentner, P. Stephan, C. Guedon, "Monolithic integration of a GaInAs p-i-n photodiode and an optical waveguide: modeling and realization using chloride vapor phase epitaxy," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 399-412 (1988).
  5. R. Deri, W. Doldissen, R. Hawkins, R. Bhat, J. Soole, L. Schiavone, M. Seto, N. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, M. Koza, "Efficient vertical coupling of photodiodes to InGaAsP rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2749-2751 (1991).
  6. J. Vinchant, F. Mallecot, D. Decoster, J. Vilcot, "Photodetectors monolithically integrated with optical waveguides: Theoretical and experimental study of absorbing layer effects," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron. 136, 72-75 (1989).
  7. Y.-S. Wu, J.-W. Shi, J.-Y. Wu, F.-H. Huang, Y.-J. Chan, Y.-L. Huang, R. Xuan, "High-performance evanescently edge coupled photodiodes with partially p-doped photoabsorption layer at 1.55 $\mu$m wavelength," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 878-880 (2005).
  8. D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, F. Kartner, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Exp. 15, 3916-3921 (2007).
  9. L. Vivien, M. Rouvicre, J. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, J. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. E. Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. L. Roux, D. Pascal, S. Laval, "High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 9843-9848 (2007).
  10. T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, M. Paniccia, "31 GHz Ge nip waveguide photodetectors on silicon-on-insulator substrate," Opt. Exp. 15, 13965-13971 (2007).
  11. J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, T. H. Loh, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, "Evanescent- coupled Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si-waveguide with SEG-Ge and comparative study of lateral and vertical p-i-n configurations," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 445-448 (2008).
  12. L. Chen, P. Dong, M. Lipson, "High performance germanium photodetectors integrated on submicron silicon waveguides by low temperature wafer bonding," Opt. Exp. 16, 11513-11518 (2008).
  13. V. Sorianello, M. Balbi, L. Colace, G. Assanto, L. Socci, L. Bolla, G. Mutinati, M. Romagnoli, "Guided-wave photodetectors in germanium on SOI optical chips," Physica E 41, 1090-1093 (2009).
  14. D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105-3 (2009).
  15. S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. Rice, Y. Vlasov, "CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM germanium waveguide photodetector," Opt. Exp. 18, 4986-4999 (2010).
  16. K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, A. E.-J. Lim, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, "Waveguide-integrated Ge/Si avalanche photodetector with 105 GHz gain-bandwidth product," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2010).
  17. Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, K. Ang, M. Yu, G. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, "WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability," Opt. Exp. 18, 5106-5113 (2010).
  18. J. Liu, D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, A. T. Pomerene, D. Carothers, C. Hill, M. Jaso, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, S. Patel, M. Rasras, D. M. Gill, A. E. White, "Waveguide integrated Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a silicon-on-insulator platform," Proc. Opt. Valley of China Int. Symp. Optoelectron. (2006) pp. 1-4.
  19. H.-C. Luan, D. Lim, K. Lee, K. Chen, J. Sandland, K. Wada, L. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).
  20. Z. Huang, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, "Effectiveness of SiGe buffer layers in reducing dark currents of Ge-on-Si photodetectors," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 238-242 (2007).
  21. S. Tewksbury, L. Hornak, "Optical clock distribution in electronic systems," J. VLSI Signal Process. 16, 225-246 (1997).
  22. V. Stenger, F. Beyette, "Design and analysis of an optical waveguide tap for silicon CMOS circuits," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 277-284 (2002).
  23. S. Wunderlich, J. Schmidt, J. Muller, "Integration of SiON waveguides and photodiodes on silicon substrates," Appl. Opt. 31, 4186-4189 (1992).
  24. U. Hilleringmann, K. Goser, "Optoelectronic system integration on silicon: Waveguides, photodetectors, and VLSI CMOS circuits on one chip," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 42, 841-846 (1995).
  25. K. Kapser, P. Deimel, "Lateral coupling between a silicon-oxinitride waveguide and an amorphous Si photodiode," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3614-3616 (1992).
  26. G. Yuan, R. Pownall, P. Nikkel, C. Thangaraj, T. Chen, K. Lear, "Characterization of CMOS compatible waveguide-coupled leaky-mode photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1657-1659 (2006).
  27. K. Schlereth, M. Tacke, "The complex propagation constant of multilayer waveguides: An algorithm for a personal computer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 627-630 (1990).
  28. D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "Coupling efficiency of monolithic, waveguide-integrated Si photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009) Art. ID 081108.
  29. J. Michel, J. Liu, D. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Hong, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. Kimerling, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. Rasras, D. Gill, S. Patel, K. Tu, Y. Chen, A. White, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, "Advances in fully CMOS integrated photonic devices," Proc. SPIE 6477, 64 770P-11 (2007).
  30. M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J. Hartmann, S. Laval, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 44, (2005) Art. ID 075402.
  31. A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, M. Paniccia, "Optical amplification and lasing by stimulated Raman scattering in silicon waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1440-1455 (2006).
  32. B. Smith, D. Feng, H. Lei, D. Zheng, J. Fong, P. Zhou, M. Asghari, "Progress in manufactured silicon photonics," Proc. SPIE (2007).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited