OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology

| A JOINT IEEE/OSA PUBLICATION

  • Vol. 28, Iss. 8 — Apr. 15, 2010
  • pp: 1228–1235

Optical Comb Sources and High-Resolution Optical Filtering for Measurement of Photodiode Harmonic Distortion

Jason D. McKinney, Daniel E. Leaird, Alex S. Hastings, Andrew M. Weiner, and Keith J. Williams

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 28, Issue 8, pp. 1228-1235 (2010)


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (426 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations
  • Export Citation/Save Click for help

Abstract

In this work we preset a new technique for measurement of harmonic distortion in microwave photodiodes. Our technique combines optical combs and high-resolution optical filtering to provide a pure optical two-tone excitation of the photodiode. Our technique removes the challenges presented by laser frequency drift and modulator bias control by utilizing a single laser and phase-modulation to synthesize the optical combs. We demonstrate our technique through measurement of the harmonic distortion generated in a commercial InGaAs photodiode and compare our results with those obtained via phase-locked laser measurements. We show that this technique provides essentially equivalent measurement fidelity to phase-locked laser techniques while offering decreased system complexity. We additionally provide a general discussion of the limits of nonlinearity measurements performed using optical heterodyne techniques.

© 2010 IEEE

Citation
Jason D. McKinney, Daniel E. Leaird, Alex S. Hastings, Andrew M. Weiner, and Keith J. Williams, "Optical Comb Sources and High-Resolution Optical Filtering for Measurement of Photodiode Harmonic Distortion," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 1228-1235 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jlt/abstract.cfm?URI=jlt-28-8-1228


Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. R. A. Minasian, "Photonic signal processing of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 832-846 (2006).
  2. P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O'Donnell, K. G. Ray, R. C. Williamson, "Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1840-1853 (2001).
  3. A. J. Seeds, K. J. Williams, "Microwave photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4628-4641 (2006).
  4. A. Hastings, V. J. Urick, C. Sunderman, J. Diehl, J. D. McKinney, D. Tulchinsky, P. S. Devgan, K. J. Williams, "Suppression of even-order photodiode nonlinearities in multi-octave photonic links," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2557-2562 (2008).
  5. C. H. Cox, IIIAnalog Optical Links: Theory and Practice. (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004).
  6. V. J. Urick, M. S. Rogge, F. Bucholtz, K. J. Williams, "The performance of analog photonic links employing highly compressed erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 3141-3145 (2006).
  7. J. D. McKinney, M. Godinez, V. J. Urick, S. Thaniyavarn, W. Charczenko, K. J. Williams, "Sub-10 db noise figure in a multiple-ghz analog optical link," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 465-467 (2007).
  8. H. V. Roussell, M. D. Regan, J. L. Prince, C. H. Cox, J. X. Chen, W. K. Burns, G. E. Betts, E. I. Ackerman, J. C. Campbell, "Gain, noise figure and bandwidth-limited dynamic range of a low-biased external modulation link," Proc. IEEE Int. Topical Meeting Microw. Photon. (2007) pp. 84-87.
  9. J. L. Brooks, G. S. Maurer, R. A. Becker, "Implementation and evaluation of a dual parallel linearization system for am-scm video transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 34-41 (1993).
  10. G. E. Betts, "Linearized modulator for suboctave-bandpass optical analog links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 42, 2642-2649 (1994).
  11. E. I. Ackerman, "Broad-band linearization of a mach-zehnder electrooptic modulator," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 2271-2279 (1999).
  12. L. M. Johnson, H. V. Roussell, "Reduction of intermodulation distortion in interferometric optical modulators," Opt. Lett. 13, 928-930 (1988).
  13. B. M. Haas, T. E. Murphy, "A simple, linearized, phase-modulated analog optical transmission system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 729-731 (2007).
  14. B. M. Haas, V. J. Urick, J. D. McKinney, T. M. Murphy, "Dual-wavelength linearization of optically phase-modulated analog microwave signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2748-2753 (2008).
  15. J. D. McKinney, K. Colladay, K. J. Williams, "Linearization of phase-modulated analog optical links employing interferometric demodulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1212-1220 (2009).
  16. K. J. Williams, L. Goldberg, R. D. Esman, M. Dagenais, J. F. Weller, "6–34 GHz offset phase-locking of Nd:YAG 1319 nm nonplanar ring lasers," Electron. Lett. 25, 1242-1243 (1989).
  17. D. C. Scott, T. A. Vang, J. Elliott, D. Forbes, J. Lacey, K. Everett, F. Alvarez, R. Johnson, A. Krispin, J. Brock, L. Lembo, H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, J. T. Zhu, P. K. L. Yu, "Measurement of ${\rm IP}_3$ in P-I-N photodetectors and proposed performance requirements for rf fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 422-424 (2000).
  18. H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, A. Vang, D. C. Scott, P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).
  19. M. N. Draa, J. Ren, D. C. Scott, W. S. C. Chang, P. K. L. Yu, "Three laser two-tone setup for measurement of photodiode intercept points," Opt. Exp. 16, 12108-12113 (2008).
  20. H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, S. Yamamoto, "Optical pulse generation by electrooptic-modulation method and its application to integrated ultrashort pulse generators," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 1325-1331 (2000).
  21. C.-B. Huang, S.-G. Park, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Nonlinearly broadened phase-modulated continuous-wave laser frequency combs characterized using DPSK decoding," Opt. Exp. 16, 2520-2527 (2008).
  22. Z. Jiang, D. Seo, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping," Opt. Lett. 30, 1557-1559 (2005).
  23. J. D. McKinney, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, K. J. Williams, "Measurement of photodiode nonlinearities using an optical comb source," Proc. CLEO (2009).
  24. A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, L. Hollberg, "Femtosecond-laser-based synthesis of ultrastable microwave signals from optical frequency references," Opt. Lett. 30, 667-669 (2005).
  25. E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, "Analysis of noise mechanisms limiting the frequency stability of microwave signgenerated with a femtosecond laser," IEEE. J. Sel. Topics. Quantum Electron. 9, 1059-1065 (2003).
  26. E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, "Study of the excess noise associated with demodulation of ultrashort infrared pulses," IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelect., Freq. Contr. 52, 1068-1074 (2005).
  27. M. Currie, I. Vurgaftman, "Microwave phase retardation in saturated ingaas photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1433-1435 (2006).
  28. S. A. Diddams, M. Kirchner, T. Fortier, D. Braje, A. M. Weiner, L. Hollberg, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio of 10 GHz microwave signals generated with a mode-filtered femtosecond laser frequency comb," Opt. Exp. 17, 3331-3340 (2009).
  29. D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering (Wiley, 2005).
  30. A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instr. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).
  31. K. J. Williams, L. T. Nichols, R. D. Esman, "Photodetector nonlinearity limitations on a high-dynamic range 3 ghz fiber optic link," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 192-199 (1998).
  32. K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, M. Dagenais, "Effects of high space-charge fields on the response of microwave photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 639-641 (1994).
  33. K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, M. Dagenais, "Nonlinearities in PIN microwave photodetectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 84-96 (1996).
  34. R. N. Thurston, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, W. J. Tomlinson, "Analysis of picosecond pulse shape synthesis by spectral masking in a grating pulse compressor," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 682-696 (1986).
  35. A. Joshi, S. Datta, D. Becker, "GRIN lens coupled top-illuminated highly linear InGaAs photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1500-1502 (2008).
  36. E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications. (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1994).
  37. A. S. Hastings, D. A. Tulchinsky, K. J. Williams, H. Pan, A. Beling, J. C. Campbell, "Minimizing photodiode nonlinearities by compensating voltage-dependent responsivity effects," Proc. MWP'09 (2009) pp. 1-4.

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited