OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology


  • Vol. 29, Iss. 18 — Sep. 15, 2011
  • pp: 2836–2846

Design of Optical XOR, XNOR, NAND, and OR Logic Gates Based on Multi-Mode Interference Waveguides for Binary-Phase-Shift-Keyed Signal

Yuhei Ishizaka, Yuki Kawaguchi, Kunimasa Saitoh, and Masanori Koshiba

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 29, Issue 18, pp. 2836-2846 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (2069 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


We present a novel design method and potential application for optical XOR, XNOR, NAND, and OR logic gates for binary-phase-shift-keyed signal processing devices. The devices are composed of multi-mode interference waveguides and convert the phase information of the input signal to amplitude at the output. We apply the finite element method for numerical simulations, and the evaluated least ON to OFF logic-level contrast ratios for the XOR, XNOR, NAND, and OR logic gates are 21.5 dB, 21.5 dB, 22.3 dB, and 22.3 dB, respectively. The proposed logic gates are extremely promising signal processing devices for binary-phase-shift-keyed signals in packet switching systems.

© 2011 IEEE

Yuhei Ishizaka, Yuki Kawaguchi, Kunimasa Saitoh, and Masanori Koshiba, "Design of Optical XOR, XNOR, NAND, and OR Logic Gates Based on Multi-Mode Interference Waveguides for Binary-Phase-Shift-Keyed Signal," J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2836-2846 (2011)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, P.-T. Ho, "Optical signal processing using nonlinear semiconductor microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).
  2. Z. Li, Z. Chen, B. Li, "Optical pulse controlled all-optical logic gates in SiGe/Si multimode interference," Opt. Exp. 13, 1033-1038 (2005).
  3. Z. Zhu, W. Ye, J. Ji, X. Yuan, C. Zen, "High-contrast light-by-light switching and AND gate based on nonlinear photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 14, 1783-1788 (2006).
  4. T. Fujisawa, M. Koshiba, "All-optical logic gates based on nonlinear slot-waveguide couplers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 684-691 (2006).
  5. Z. Li, G. Li, "Ultrahigh-speed reconfigurable logic gates based on four wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1341-1343 (2006).
  6. Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Li, "Optical switches and logic gates based on self-collimated beams in two-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 15, 9287-9292 (2007).
  7. Y. Wu, T. Shih, "New all-optical logic gates based on the local nonlinear Mach–Zehnder interferometer," Opt. Exp. 16, 248-257 (2008).
  8. Q. Liu, Z. Quyang, C. J. Wu, C. P. Liu, J. C. Wang, "All-optical half adder based on cross structures in two-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 16, 18992-19000 (2008).
  9. P. Andalib, N. Granpayeh, "All-optical ultracompact photonic crystal AND gate based on nonlinear ring resonators," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 10-16 (2009).
  10. B. M. Isfahani, T. A. Tameh, N. Granpayeh, A. R. M. Javan, "All-optical NOR gate based on nonlinear photonic crystal microring resonators," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 1097-1102 (2009).
  11. J. Bai, J. Wang, J. Jiang, X. Chen, H. Li, Y. Qiu, Z. Qiang, "Photonic NOT and NOR gates based on a single compact photonic crystal ring resonator," Appl. Opt. 48, 6923-6927 (2009).
  12. S. Zeng, Y. Zhang, B. Li, E. Y. Pun, "Ultrasmall optical logic gates based on silicon periodic dielectric waveguides," Photon. Nanostruct. 8, 32-37 (2010).
  13. M. Zhang, L. Wang, P. Ye, "All-optical XOR logic gates: Technologies and experiment demonstrations," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, S19-S24 (2005).
  14. Z. Zalevsky, A. Rudnitsky, "Nano photonic and ultra fast all-optical processing modules," Opt. Exp. 13, 10272-10284 (2005).
  15. D. K. Hunter, I. Andonovic, "Approaches to optical internet packet switching," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 116-122 (2000).
  16. D. J. Blumenthal, B. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, L. A. Coldren, J. Barton, "All-optical label swapping networks and technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2058-2075 (2000).
  17. R. Clavero, J. M. Martínez, F. Ramos, J. Martí, "All-optical packet routing scheme for optical label-swapping networks," Opt. Exp. 12, 4326-4332 (2004).
  18. R. Vilar, J. M. Martínez, F. Ramos, J. Martí, "All-optical dedcrementing of a packet's time-to-live (TTL) field using logic XOR gates," Opt. Exp. 16, 19734-19740 (2008).
  19. K. Mishina, A. Marta, S. Mitani, T. Miyahara, K. Ishida, K. Shimizu, T. Hatta, K. Motoshima, K. Kitayama, "NRZ-OOK-to-RZ-BPSK modulation-format conversion using SOA-MZI wavelength converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3751-3758 (2006).
  20. Z. Liu, S. Xiao, L. Cai, Z. Liang, "Multi-format receiver for non-return-to-zero binary-phase-shift-keyed and non-return-to-zero amplitude-shift-keyed signals," Opt. Exp. 17, 2918-2925 (2009).
  21. A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, L. Stulz, "Demonstration of 42.7-Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45 photons/bit sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 99-101 (2003).
  22. A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, E. Burrows, "25$\,\times\,$40-Gb/s copolarized DPSK transmission over 12$\,\times\,$100-km NZDF with 50-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 467-469 (2003).
  23. T. Mizuochi, K. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, J. Abe, K. Kinjo, K. Motoshima, K. Kasahara, "A comparative study of DPSK and OOK WDM transmission over transoceanic distances and their performance degradations due to nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1933-1943 (2003).
  24. M. L. Gilmore, F. R. Steel, J. A. Tempka, Digital Detection System for Differential Phase Shift Keyed Signal U.S. Patent 3 993 956 (1976).
  25. C. Xu, X. Liu, X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2001).
  26. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).
  27. N. Deng, K. Chan, C.-K. Chan, L.-K. Chen, "An all-optical XOR logic gate for high-speed RZ-DPSK signals by FWM in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 702-707 (2006).
  28. J. Xu, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Dong, D. Liu, D. Huang, "Reconfigurable all-optical logic gates for multi-input differential phase-shift keying signals: Design and experiments," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5268-5275 (2009).
  29. J. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, D. Huang, M. M. Fejer, "Ultrafast all-optical three-input Boolean XOR operation for differential phase-shift keying signals using periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 33, 1419-1421 (2008).
  30. E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Coherent detection in optical fiber system," Opt. Exp. 16, 753-791 (2008).
  31. V. Ferrero, S. Camatel, "Optical phase locking techniques: An overview and a novel method based on single side sub-carrier modulation," Opt. Exp. 16, 818-828 (2008).
  32. M. J. Fice, A. Chiuchiarelli, E. Ciaramella, A. J. Seeds, "Homodyne Cherent optical receiver using an optical injection phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1152-1164 (2011).
  33. J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, "Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM system," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 259-272 (2004).
  34. P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, "Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1001-1009 (1994).
  35. D. X. Dai, S. L. He, "Optimization of ultracompact polarization-insensitive multimode interference couplers based on ridge waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2017-2019 (2006).
  36. J. Xiao, X. Liu, X. Sum, "Design of an ultracompact MMI wavelength demultiplexer in slot waveguide structures," Opt. Exp. 15, 8300-8308 (2007).
  37. Y. Tsuji, M. Koshiba, "Finite element method using port truncation by perfectly matched layer boundary conditions for optical waveguide discontinuity problems," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 463-468 (2002).
  38. L. B. Soldano, C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
  39. E. Bonek, W. R. Leeb, A. L. Scholtz, H. K. Phillipp, "Optical PLLs see the light," Microwaves & RF 22, 65-70 (1983).
  40. K.-P. Ho, Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems (Springer Science Business Media Inc, 2005).
  41. F. L. Texeira, W. C. Chew, "General closed-form PML constitutive tensors to match arbitrary bianisotropic and dispersive linear media," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 8, 223-225 (1998).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited