OSA's Digital Library

Journal of Lightwave Technology

Journal of Lightwave Technology


  • Vol. 29, Iss. 18 — Sep. 15, 2011
  • pp: 2853–2860

Impairment-Aware Lightpath Routing and Regenerator Placement in Optical Transport Networks With Physical-Layer Heterogeneity

Gangxiang Shen, Yunfeng Shen, and Harshad P. Sardesai

Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 29, Issue 18, pp. 2853-2860 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (252 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

  • Export Citation/Save Click for help


We develop a framework that supports impairment-aware lightpath routing and wavelength assignments in optical transport networks. Different from most existing studies, we consider a more generic optical transport network with physical-layer heterogeneity, including different fiber types, variable amplification span distances and attenuation coefficients. In addition, rather than a single amplifier type as in most of the existing studies, we consider multiple amplifier types for different amplification situations. Owing to the high cost of OEO regeneration, the total number of required regenerators is considered as the major objective for optimization. A signal-quality-aware routing algorithm is developed to find routes that are expected to require the fewest regenerators. The first-fit wavelength assignment algorithm is extended to assign wavelength(s) for lightpaths after placement of some regenerators which can freely function as wavelength converters. Simulation studies indicate that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the required number of regenerators compared to the simple shortest-path routing algorithm. Moreover, it is found that the signal-quality-aware algorithm shows stronger benefits when a network demonstrates higher physical-layer heterogeneity such as different fiber types and non-uniform span losses. The signal-quality-aware algorithm also demonstrates better performance when a network has a higher average nodal degree. Finally, the results indicate that multiple amplifier options are important for cost-effective optical transport network design. For a network with high physical-layer heterogeneity, multiple amplifier options can significantly reduce the required number of regenerators (up to 50%) over a single amplifier option.

© 2011 IEEE

Gangxiang Shen, Yunfeng Shen, and Harshad P. Sardesai, "Impairment-Aware Lightpath Routing and Regenerator Placement in Optical Transport Networks With Physical-Layer Heterogeneity," J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2853-2860 (2011)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, "Lightpath communications: An approach to high bandwidth optical WAN's," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1171-1182 (1992).
  2. H. Zang, J. P. Jue, B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 47-60 (2000).
  3. G. Bernstein, Y. Lee, W. Imajuku, "Framework for GMPLS and PCE control of wavelength switched optical networks (WSON)," IETF Draft Draft-Ietf-CCAMP-Wavelength-Switched-Framework-01.txt.
  4. B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. P. Heritage, B. Mukherjee, "Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1713-1723 (1999).
  5. Y. Huang, J. P. Heritage, B. Mukherjee, "Connection provisioning with transmission impairment consideration in optical WDM networks with high-speed channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 982-993 (2005).
  6. M. Gagnaire, S. A. Zahr, "Impairment-aware routing and wavelength assignment in translucent networks: State of the art," IEEE Commun. Mag. 55-61 (2009).
  7. K. Manousakis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Kamitsas, I. Tomkos, E. A. Varvarigos, "Offline impairment-aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in translucent WDM optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1866-1877 (2009).
  8. S. Pachnicke, T. Pashenda, P. M. Krummrich, "Physical impairment based regenerator placement and routing in translucent optical networks," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008 .
  9. T. Deng, S. Subramanian, J. Xu, "Crosstalk-aware wavelength assignment in dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks," Proc. 1st Int. Conf. Broadband Networks (BROADNETS) (2004).
  10. J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, S. Subramaniam, "QoS-aware wavelength assignment with BER and latency guarantees for crosstalk limited networks," Proc. ICC (2007) pp. 2336-2341.
  11. G. Shen, W. V. Sorin, R. S. Tucker, "Cross-layer design of ASE-noise-limited island-based translucent optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1434-1442 (2009).
  12. G. Shen, W. D. Grover, T. H. Cheng, S. K. Bose, "Sparsely placement of electronic switching nodes for low blocking in translucent optical networks," J. Opt. Networking 1, 424-441 (2002).
  13. X. Yang, B. Ramamurthy, "Sparse regeneration in translucent wavelength-routed optical networks: Architecture, network design and wavelength routing," Photon. Netw. Commun. 10, 39-53 (2005).
  14. G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, "Translucent optical networks: The way forward," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48-54 (2007).
  15. S. Rumley, C. Gaumier, "Cost aware design of translucent WDM transport networks," Proc. ICTON (2009) pp. 1-4.
  16. S. Azodolmolky, "A dynamic impairment-aware networking solution for translucent mesh optical networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38-47 (2009).
  17. S. Pachnicke, N. Luck, P. M. Krummrich, "Online physical-layer impairment-aware routing with quality of transmission constraints in translucent optical networks," Proc. ICTON (2009).
  18. K. Katrinis, A. Tzanakaki, G. Markidis, "Impairment-aware WDM network dimensioning with optimized regenerator placement," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2009).
  19. G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, "Sparse traffic grooming in translucent optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4471-4479 (2009).
  20. N. Sambo, "Accounting for shared regenerators in GMPLS-controlled translucent optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4338-4347 (2009).
  21. L. Wang, J. Zhang, G. Gao, Y. Liu, X. Chen, W. Gu, "A hybrid control architecture for connection management in translucent WDM networks," Proc. Globecom (2008).
  22. S. Tibuleac, M. Filer, "Transmission impairments in DWDM networks with reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 557-568 (2010).
  23. S. Pachnicke, T. Paschenda, P. M. Krummrich, "Assessment of a constraint-based routing algorithm for translucent 10 Gbits/s DWDM networks considering fiber nonlinearities," J. Opt. Networking 7, 365-377 (2008).

Cited By

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited